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82 Cards in this Set

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John Baptist de Lamark
studied blacksmith arms and noticed the more you used them the more they grow
said that giraffe ancestors were like donkeys and had to stretch to reach the leaves
he was wrong
Inheritance of aquired characteristics
(de Lamark) meaning that whatever has changed in one's lifetime will be passed on to the next generation (wrong)
Evolution
genetic change through time
Charles Darwin
developed idea of evolution
1859 published "Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection"
"Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection"
increasing production through reproduction
great deal of variation through living things
struggle for survival
Natural Selection
nature decides who survives and who reproduces to pass on the same genes that allow them to survive
Hardy-Weinberg equation
used to see if evolution has occured
p + q = 1
p= frequency of dominant allele
q= frequency of recessive allele
Genotype frequency formula
p2 + 2pq + q2= 1
Genetic drift
changes that occur in genotypes as a result of chance and is also the bottleneck effect since it acts as a constriction point
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
if there is equilibrium then there was no evolution
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Characteristics
large population
random mating
no genetic drift
no mutations
no natural selections
no migration
no natural defection
Hardy-Weinberg Evolution is occuring
if the first generation's equation does not match the secodn generations
Darwin Evolution
Organisms have gained potential for reproduction
Variations present among members of the same species
Struggle for survival
Survival of the fittest results from natural selection
Directional Selection
animals that are in the same majority are selected against the minority to blend...white and black and some day everyone will be mixed
Stabilizing selection
when year after year the animals in the majority stay the majority and the animals in the minority stay in the minority (cockroach)
Disruptive selection
average traits are eliminated from a population
Species
are all organisms that produce viable offsprings
Speciation
is the production of a new species
Speciation occurs..
isolation
Poly Ploidy
Poly Ploidy
a new species is produced as a result of a miotic/ meiotic mistake (plants)
Darwin/ Galapagos Islands
studied finches: found that birds with long beaks will be on tress and mate with those while birds with short beaks will be on ground and mate with those
Prezygotic isolation
is a geographical habitat behavior
Postzygotic Isolation
animals (exception:mules) cannot pass on their genes because they are sterile
Behavioral Isolation
animals with certain features can only survive in one place and can only mate with animals that have the same features. (behaviors keep these animals separate)
Temporal Isolation
birds are wired to mate to early in the year and their bodies freeze to death
Mechanical Isolation
when body parts don't fit
chihuahau and Great dane
Ecological Isolation
animals are unlikely to mate because they spend time in different ecosystems
seagulls and blue jays
Gametic mortality
how sturdy one's gametes are (vaginal tract is lethal to sperm)
Geographic isolation
when birds are blown to the Galapagos islands and could not fly back
Adaptive Radiation
animals have certain adaptions to help them find food
Disruptive selection
average traits are eliminated from a population
Species
are all organisms that produce viable offsprings
Speciation
is the production of a new species
Speciation occurs..
isolation
Poly Ploidy
Poly Ploidy
a new species is produced as a result of a miotic/ meiotic mistake (plants)
Darwin/ Galapagos Islands
studied finches: found that birds with long beaks will be on tress and mate with those while birds with short beaks will be on ground and mate with those
Prezygotic isolation
is a geographical habitat behavior
Postzygotic Isolation
animals (exception:mules) cannot pass on their genes because they are sterile
Behavioral Isolation
animals with certain features can only survive in one place and can only mate with animals that have the same features. (behaviors keep these animals separate)
Temporal Isolation
birds are wired to mate to early in the year and their bodies freeze to death
Mechanical Isolation
when body parts don't fit
chihuahau and Great dane
Ecological Isolation
animals are unlikely to mate because they spend time in different ecosystems
seagulls and blue jays
Gametic mortality
how sturdy one's gametes are (vaginal tract is lethal to sperm)
Geographic isolation
when birds are blown to the Galapagos islands and could not fly back
Adaptive Radiation
animals have certain adaptions to help them find food
Adaptive Radiation
organisms are introduced into a new environment and as a result of their special features they move into habitats that best suite their features
Ecology
made up of (from smallest to biggest) organism, population, community, ecosystem
Adaptive Radiation
organisms are introduced into a new environment and as a result of their special features they move into habitats that best suite their features
Ecology
made up of (from smallest to biggest) organism, population, community, ecosystem
biotic component
all living things in an ecosystem
biotic component
all living things in an ecosystem
abiotic component
non living things in the environment water, air soil
abiotic component
non living things in the environment water, air soil
niche
what an organism does as a living
organisms occupy a given niche in an ecosystem and are classified in trophic levels
niche
what an organism does as a living
organisms occupy a given niche in an ecosystem and are classified in trophic levels
First level
Producers- green plant, convert sun into energy via photosynthesis
First level
Producers- green plant, convert sun into energy via photosynthesis
Second level
First order consumers- herbivors eat the producers
Second level
First order consumers- herbivors eat the producers
Third level
Second order consumers- carnivors
Third level
Second order consumers- carnivors
forth level
Third order consumers-carnivors who eat the second order consumers
forth level
Third order consumers-carnivors who eat the second order consumers
fifth order
decomposers- bacteria and fungo that breaks down macro molecules of all levels into their building blocks for recycling through the ecosystem
Second law of thermodynamics
the reason why there are not equal levels on the pyramid of numbers
everytime you convert energy from one form to another there is terrible inefficency of conversion and you lose a lot of energy
Energy cycle
There is no energy cycle through the ecosystem because it all flows one way
steak and starving children
dont give steak to the hungry bc 100 pounds of wheat will add up to 10 pounds but 100 pounds of wheat to a cow then fed to a human is only 1 pound
Biological magnification
a toxin that is not normally broken down in the environment
toxins becme part of the food chain
Predation
organisms eat other organism
fifth order
decomposers- bacteria and fungo that breaks down macro molecules of all levels into their building blocks for recycling through the ecosystem
Second law of thermodynamics
the reason why there are not equal levels on the pyramid of numbers
everytime you convert energy from one form to another there is terrible inefficency of conversion and you lose a lot of energy
Energy cycle
There is no energy cycle through the ecosystem because it all flows one way
steak and starving children
dont give steak to the hungry bc 100 pounds of wheat will add up to 10 pounds but 100 pounds of wheat to a cow then fed to a human is only 1 pound
Biological magnification
a toxin that is not normally broken down in the environment
toxins becme part of the food chain
Predation
organisms eat other organism
Commensalism
when one organism benefits but the other organism is neither harmed nor helped
bird builds a nest in tree
Parasitism
one organism benefits and the other does not
Toleration
both parties are not harmed nor helped
Competetion
both animals are harmed bc they are after the same species
Mutualism
when both animals benefit
food chain
can only be found in simple ecosystems
one producer in a food chain
Factors that determine population size
Birth rate
Death rate
immigration
emigration