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67 Cards in this Set

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transport protein
protein that helps move particals acroos the lipid bilayer
facilitated diffusion
use of transport proteins to move particles across the plasma membrane
channel protein
one channel that allows only the particles that fit through the membrane
carrier protein
proteins that change shape to allow certain molecules to cross the membrane
gate protein
carrier protein that oopens as a gate when a 'signal' molecule combines with the gate
active transport
transportation of particles that requires energy
endocytosis
when the plasma membrane lets in substances from a cells environment
vesicle
a small sac that is caused by part of the membrane closing over a food particle
phagocytosis
form of endocytosis when solid chunks of material are taken in
pinocytosis
form of endocytosis in which liquid droplets are taken in
exocytosis
when things are sent out of the cells membrane
cell wall
lies outside of the plasma membrane
tissue
group of cells that have the same basic structure and function
organ
group of tissues w/ same properties
system
group of organs working together
cytoplasm
holds everything in the cell
eukaryotes
cells that contain a nucleus - plant, animal, etc
prokaryotes
no nucleus
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
looks like chocolate- ribosomes attatch to it
ribosomes
tiny particles composed of RNA and protein - produces proteins
golgi bodies
lie near ER - modifys and packs proteins
mitochondria
breaks down molecules to release energy for cell reactions
nucleus
central control center - middle of cell
chromatin
consists of individual proteins - around nucleus
chromosomes
consist of DNA and proteins - copied to reproduce
nucleoli
made of chromosome parts - hold DNA copies
chloroplasts
green - used in photosynthesis
plastids
storage or contains pigments.. ex: chloroplasts
lysosomes
break down food - digestion
vacuoles
storge within the cell
centrioles
separate to opp. ends of cells during reproduction
symbiosis
relationship in which 2 organisms coenside and depend on eachother
alcoholic fermentation
when enzymes break down glucose into ATP
spontaneous generation
things just appear - no evolution
interphase
growing cycle of a cells life
mitosis
reproduction that forms two cells
prophase
1st stage of mitosis - spindles form - centrioles split - two chromatids are conected by a centromere
metaphase
2nd stage - chromosomes line up in center of cell
anaphase
3rd stage - centromeres split and chromatids are drawn to centrioles
telephase
4th and last stage - cell splits
binary fission
when DNA is replicated and 2 cells are formed
diploid
things having two of each chromosome
homologues
the two same chromosomes
zygote
single fertalized egg
gametes
sex cells
haploid
sex cells - contain one of each chromosome
meiosis
process that forms sex cells
meiosis outline
interphase I, telephase I, anaphase I, telephase I, prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telephase II
genetics
science of heredity
allele
letter that stands for a trait - ex: blue eyes = bb
incomplete dominance
when a trait is neither dominant or recessive
codominance
when on allele is not dominant over the other
4 nitrogen bases
adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine
nucleotide
combination of a nitrogen base, sugar, and a phosphate group
dexyribose
sugar in a nucleotide
codon
set of 3 bases representing a protein code
transcription
formation of RNA from DNA
translation
synthesis of a polypeptide from from the RNA info
anticodon
set of bases that is specific to an amino acid the tRNA carries
deletion
mutation where a nucleotide is deleted
insertion
mutation where a nucletide is inserted
point mutation
mutation where one nucletide is substituted for another one
oncogenes
cancer-causing genes
plasmids
small circular pieces of DNA
trisomy
having one too many of one chromosome
amniocentesis
technique where they sample the fluid around the baby
what is the dna sugar?
dexyribose