Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/38

Click to flip

38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Low to High Concentration
Active Transport
High to Low Concentration
Facilitated Diffusion
What does the xylem transport?
Water and dissolved nutrients
What does the phloem transport?
Sugar (and water)
What is the biological definition of life?
1. order
2. energy utilization
3. reproduce and grow
4. homeostastis
5. evolutionary adaption
Domain Bacteria
- single celled organisms
- no nucleus
- include some prokaryotes
Domain Archae
- single celled organisms
- prokaryotes
- cell walls different than bacteria
Domain Eukarya
- nucleus
- may or may not have organelles
- include protista, plantae, fungi, animalia
How old is the planet and what evidence do we have to prove this?
- 4.5 billion years old
- meteroites and moon rocks through radiometric dating
What is a cell?
water based compartment filled with concentrated chemicals bound by a thin, flexible membrane
What is the smallest organism? the tallest?
smallest - bacteria
tallest - sequoia tree
Describe prokaryotic cells.
- membrane and cytoplasm
- no nucleus or organelles
- DNA found in cytoplasm
- cell wall provides structure
Describe eukaryotic cells.
- membrane and cytoplasm
- cytoplasm has nucleus and organelles
- usually larger than prokaryotes
- some have cell walls (fungi and plants)
A fossilized leaf contains 1.5% of the parent isotope (C^14) and 98.5% of daughter isotope (N^14). How many half lives have occurred. If the half life is 5,730, how old is this fossil?
6 half lives and the fossil is 34,380 years old.
Intact fossils
no decomposition
Compressed fossils
sediments accumulates to compress organims into a thin C-rich film (most common)
Premineralized fossils
organism decayed very slowly allowing dissolved minerals to accumulate and eventually hardened into stone (rare)
Cast fossils
organism decomposed and left a hole that was filled in with dissolved minerals that form a cast (common)
What are the limitations of the fossil record?
1. Habitat bias - favors organisms that live in areas where sediments are deposited
2. Anatomical bias - hard organisms make better fossils than soft ones
3. Temporal bias - favors organisms in higher layers (more recent).
4. Abundance bias - find more fossils of animals that are/were in abundance
What is biostratigraphy?
using fossil record and radiometric dating to reconstruct earth's history
What are covalent bonds?
sharing of electrons
What are lipids?
- store energy and form membranes
- polar head loves water
- nonpolar tail hates water
What are carbohydrates?
function: energy, communication, help build cell walls and give structure
What are proteins?
function: EVERYTHING - amino acids, proteins in eye detect light, muscle proteins contract muscles, help make ATP
What are nucleic acids?
- genetic information
What are the differences between DNA and RNA?
DNA - bigger and long, 2 strands of polymers
RNA- smaller, only 1 strand
What are the 5 steps from "no cells to cells"?
1. evolution of small reduced carbon
2. these molecules reacted to form building blocks of macromolecules
3. macromolecules begin to form
4. evolution of self repeating molecule
5. evolution of replicating cell
What does reduced mean?
atoms gain electrons
What does oxidized mean?
atoms lose electrons
Miller's experiment
- Actually step 2 in the chemical evolution
- combined water, methane, NH3, H3, heat and lightning
- created reduced carbon atmosphere
Bar-Nun and Chang's experiment
- step 1
- combined water, CO, H2, N2, CO2 and sunlight
- oxidized atmosphere
What is binary fission?
Cell division in prokaryotes.
1. chromosome (DNA) attaches to membrane.
2. chromosome is duplicated.
3. cell membrane grows.
4. cell membrane invaginates
5. cells separate.
Variation in prokaryotic cells.
1. mutations - DNA replication cause genetic variation
2. conjugation - lateral transfer of genetic material
3. picking up "free DNA"
What is the endosymbiotic theory?
eukaryotic cells engulfed prokaryotes

predictions:
- mitochrondia and chloroplasts are the same size as prokaryotes, divide by binary fission, and have double membranes and circular DNA.
What is the endosymbiotic theory?
eukaryotic cells engulfed prokaryotes

predictions:
- mitochrondia and chloroplasts are the same size as prokaryotes, divide by binary fission, and have double membranes and circular DNA.
What is the endosymbiotic theory?
eukaryotic cells engulfed prokaryotes

predictions:
- mitochrondia and chloroplasts are the same size as prokaryotes, divide by binary fission, and have double membranes and circular DNA.
What is the endosymbiotic theory?
eukaryotic cells engulfed prokaryotes

predictions:
- mitochrondia and chloroplasts are the same size as prokaryotes, divide by binary fission, and have double membranes and circular DNA.
What is the endosymbiotic theory?
eukaryotic cells engulfed prokaryotes

predictions:
- mitochrondia and chloroplasts are the same size as prokaryotes, divide by binary fission, and have double membranes and circular DNA.