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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
homologous structures
bones in a human arm, a bird wing, or the front fin of a dolphin
vestigial structures
whale's pelvis
DNA or protein sequences
cytochrome found in human and chimpanzee amino acids
community
the organisms that live in a particular place
habitat
the physical location of a community
yearly precipitation of 75 to 250 cm
deciduous forests
more species than any other biome
tropical rain forests
inhabitants must conserve water to survive
desert
ground is always frozen
tundra
phytoplankton
found near the surface because they require light
diatoms
have glasslike shells sometimes used to make detergents and fertilizers
dinoflagellates
cause the red tides that are poisonous to fish
green algae
considered to be the ancestors of plants
brown algae
occur as kelp forests off the coast of California
gut
internal passage through which food passes while being digested
gastrulation
process of forming layers of cells
ectoderm
outer layer of cells formed by gastrulation
endoderm
inner layer of cells formed by gastrulation
bilateral symmetry
type of body symmetry whereby an animal can be separated into nearly mirror-image halves when an imaginary line is drawn lengthwise down middle of the body
organs
collections of different kinds of tissue that are dedicated to one function
acoelomate
solid body construction of an animal in which the gut is completely surrounded by tissue and organs
ray-finned fishes
bony fishes whose fins are fan-shaped and are supported by thin bony rays
tissue
group of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function
nerve tissue
tissue found in the brain, nerves, and sense organs
epidermis
outer layer of skin
dermis
inner part of the skin
nerves
part of the dermis that enables us to sense pressure, temperature, and pain
muscles
contract and pull hairs in the skin upright when one is cold or afraid
blood vessels
carry nutrients to the skin and waste products away
sweat glands
help to keep the body cool through the evaporation of moisture from the skin
skull
fused bones that protect the brain and form the shape of the face
spine
made up of vertebrae that support the trunk
ribs
attached to the sternum by cartilage; protects the heart, lungs, and some other organs
shoulder girdle
framework of bone to which the arms are attached
pelvic girdle
framework of bone to which the legs are attached
joint
place where two or more bones connect
ligaments
connective tissue that joins bones together
sprain
injury that results when ligaments are stretched too far
cerebrum
center of intellect, memory, language, and consciousness
cerebellum
responsible for well-coordinated body movements
plasma
protein-rich substance that makes blood a liquid
red blood cells
cell that carries oxygen from the lungs to all of the cells of the body
hemoglobin
protein molecule in which oxygen binds easily to the iron
white blood cells
colorless and irregularly shaped cells that protect the body against foreign invaders
platelets
fragments of large white blood cells that play an important role in the clotting of blood