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131 Cards in this Set

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Simplest messages require

Complex pathways and processing requires
afferent and efferent neurons

interneurons/association neurons
Brain nerves
efferent and afferent neurons

myleinated: white
non: grey + interneurons
Hindbrain
coordinates motor reflexes

medulla, pons, cerebellum
Brainstem
Midbrain, pons, medulla
Midbrain
reticular system: area where information is gathered, monitoring higher/lower processesing
Forebrain
diencephalon, thalmus, hypothalamus, limbic system, telencephalon, corpus striodum, cerebrum
-Diencephalon
integrates sensory information

hypothalamus, thalamus, limbic system
Hypothalamus
basic life sustaining homeostatic process: hunger, thirst, pleasure, pain.
Thalamus
sensory switchboard: where it is going to go
Limbic System
network that integrates and handles motor responses
Telencephalon
association, link information together for higher/complex response
Corpus Striodum
reptiles, birds stereotype

behavior ritualized
Cerebrum
largest in humans
folded grey matter

2 halves connected by corpus collosum
Motor location
back protion of frontal lobe
Sensory location
frong/leading edge of parietal
5%/95%
5% cortex: motor/sensory
95% association: thought, problem, memory, analyze
Left and Right Brain
L: analytical
R: creation

cross over medulla
Temporal Lobe
Hippocampus: memory
Spinal cord
brain extentsion

neurons, fluid
stress
Peripheral Nervous System
copmlex network of different pathways that carry to/from brain or spinal cord
Hormones
endocrine system
Hypothalamus
2 hormones made by/transported by nerve axon on initial release

nervous system acts like an endocrine system

monitor hormones

ADH: anti-diretic hormone: unrine
oxytocin: muscle contraction, mammary glands

posterior pituitary gland
7 other hormones
releasing and regulating/excitatory factors

found in anterior pituitary gland

thyroid stimulating, lutenizing, follicle stimulating, ATCH, HGH, prolactin, melanocyte stimulating

produces inhibitory factors for every regulatory
Thyroid Stimulating hormone
THS, controls metabolism
Lutenizing hormone
ovaries and testes
Follicle stimulating hormone
FSH: ovaries and testes
Adreno-corticotropic hormone
ATCH cortex of adrenal glands
Growth hormone
HGH whole body growth
Prolactin
only woman

after birthy release milk
Melanocyte
stimulating hormone: skin, melanin pigment
Negative Feedback Loop

+ location
Hypothalamus

on: drop below a certain level
off: optimum level

concentration, keep equilibrium
Antagonistic responses and control
Parathyroid: antaconistic hormone to thyroid

Calcitonin, pancrease
Calcitonin
blood calcium level: decrease calcium in blood (thy); increase calcium (para)
Pancreas hormone
blood glucose (sugar levels)

insulin: decrease blood sugar level
glucagon: increase, hang on to sugar

- Balance: negative feedback loop
Adrenal glands
respond to stress

adrenaline
noradrenaline
How do hormones actually react on their targets?
hormones that release (and insulin)

1. peptide hormones
2. steroids
Peptide hormones
do not enter target cell, but bind to receptor site on cell surface; chain reaction/amino acid within cell change membrane

-amine groups
-polypeptide
-glycoproteins
Peptide hormone reaction
When reaches receptor site of garget --> change -->

CASCADE reaction: one chemical stimulates another chemical -->

second messangers: calcium and cyclic AMP
Steroids
chemical different
cholesterol molecules

can enter target cell, not just cell, but nucleus; initiate transpcription/shut down genes?
Non endocrine hormone
prostagladin: made in every tissue

stomach: gastrine
Antigens
anything that enters the body that is foreign, outside the body, that is NOT SELF

inventory at birth: proteins knowns as SELF
Antibodies
fight antigens
proteins
specific proteins to specific antigens
1st time antigens

Pathway immune response
make antibody against antigens

Pathway immune response: lock and key
Secondary immune response
same antigen - maybe faster 2nd time; remembers what it looks like the first time: memory receptors
White Blood cells
monocytes, b-lymphocytes, pre-t-lymphocytes
Monocytes
macrophages: eat antigens

macrophages tag themselves to let others know theyre infected
b-Lyphocytes
remain in structures until invasion --> plasma cells after/upon invasion --> MAKE specific antibody
pre-t-Lyphocytes
before invasion
not specific until invasion occurs
t-Lyphocytes
upon invasion

helper, cytotoxic, inducer, supressor
Helper t cells
assist other t cells
Cytotoxic t cells
stab infected macrophages

some will persist: memory t cells (helper?)
Inducer t cells
stimulate more t cells
Supressor t cells
shut down response
Line of defenses
1. Skin
2. Enzymes
3. Specific proteins on invader
4. White Blood Cells
Specific proteins on invader
do not have certain proteins that it should have

MCH proteins
- invaders lack
- yes: self cell markers
Where are antibodies generated?
Plasma
Gene Shuffling
unlimited antibodies
Homeostasis
optimum set of conditions/concentration

water volume + stuff dissolved in that water --> osmoregulation

kidneys
Urinary system
what its going to kkep, what its going to save

maintain water volume, salts
Osmoconformer
marine invertebrates

-internal body fluid as salty as environment =
-adjust to match externally when concentrations occur high --> high
Osmoregulator
fresh water

internal concentration different than environment

bodies usually higher salt
Osmoregulators
nephrid system
packaging system: membrane encloses system, acts like a filter
Malpignian Tubes
insects, terrestrial

movement of potassium ions
not losing too much mostiure to the environment --> move K into tubule
Kidneys
vertebrates

pushing materials through filter w pressure/force

selective reabsorption through water and dissolved substances
Fresh Water Fish
saltier body than environment

problem: could take on too much fresh water --> FILTER< REABSORB, EXCRETE
Marine Fish
maybe loosing water

hang onto much water that they can
Boman's capsule
filter
Glomerulus
network of capillaries
surface area

blood under pressure
Loop of Henle
connect distal and proximal convoluted tubule
Distal Convoluted Tubule
increase surface area, reabsorb what accidentally got filtered
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
increase surface area, reabsorb what accidentally got filtered
Collecting Duct
collecting waste for excretion

maybe some reabsorption of water
Shark Urinary System
same as marine fish but make themselves isotonic w water - storing high concentration of urea in blood
Amphibian
fresh water
Reptile Urinary System
fresh water and marine
glands: salt from nose
absorb as much water as they can
[high] urine
Terrestrial Urinary System
cannot bring [salts in urine] be higher than [salts in blood plasma] = conteract the process of trying to save water
Bird/Mammal Urinary System
can make [urine] higher than [salts in blood]
increase [] of nephrons in tissues theyre sitting in --> suck water out of tube, retain water --> osmosis gradient
Only premeable to Water
Loop: permeable to salt but not as much to water

Distal: permeable to salt --> active salt pump --> water!
Waste
primarily urea in collecting duct

reabsorb some urea from outside concentration of salt
Water
all water cam from blood - put water back into capillaries/veins into circulatory system
What are GAP JUNCTIONS in cell communication?
chemically transported between two cells
Name three different types of cell communication.
gap junctions, hormones, neurons.
What are HORMONES in cell communication?
more effiecient way to get information from one part of the body to the other via specialized receptors
What are NEURONS in cell communication?
charge across the membrane of the neuron created by the Na and K ion gradient.

Na diffuse in, actively pumped out. K diffuses out, gets pumped back in.
Cell "at rest"
not dividing, but still going to be working very hard to maintain this potential so if later the body wants to char it, it can?
What are DENDRITES?
input receptors of the neurons
What are AXON?
electral message transferred out of the neuron
What are NEUROTRANSMITTERS?
relay information that is in chemical form over the water gap to carry to the next cell.
How do you speed up the process in cell communication?
a STIMULUS binds to the neuron to reverse the charge

certain protein channels open and allow for reversal of charge, cells are designed to voer the whole plasma quickly.
What are NEURONS?
cells that transmit electrical messages.
What are GLIAL CELLS?*
protect neurons from bad chemicals and bacteria
What are SCHWANN CELLS?*
most important of glial cells

wraps itself around neuron creating covering of protection.
What is MYELIN SHEATHING?
wraps itself around neuron creating covering of protection.

insulates neuron
What are the NODES OF RANVIER?
gaps between myelin sheath
What is SALTATORY CONDUCTION?*
electrical charges gets a jump everytime it hits a node making it look like it jumps from node to node.

faster communication
What is REFRACTORY PERIOD?*
can only do reversal charge in one direction, cannot double over.
What if something binds to the receptor site of the dendrite but is not strong enough to cause reversal?*
The stimulus has to be at THRESHOLD to get reversal charge.
What is THRESHOLD STRENGTH?
the minimum strength that activates reversal of charge.
Central Nervous System
Brain
Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory/Motor
Sensory Neurons
information INTO CNS

afferent
Motor Neurons
information OUT of CNS

efferent: voluntary/involuntary
EFFERENT Neurons
Motor

involuntary/voluntary
AFFERENT Neurons
sensory
Sympathetic Nervous System
under stress, use up other sources from parasympathetic to function on a specific thing.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
chill out time for body, relaxation.

allows body to function wo stress.
What system aids the process of communicating with the CNS and PNS?
Endocrine System
What are the anatomical differences between PNS and CNS?*
Axons in CNS for TRACTS

Axon in PNS form NERVES.
What are GANGLIA?
cell body and dendrites in PNS
Describe the neurons in CNS.*
neuron TRACTS not heavily myelinated, grey matter replaces myelin.
Describe the neurons in PNS
neurons are NERVES
always myelinated = white matter.
Components of a SENSORY PATHWAY*
1. Stimulation: sufficient strength or threshold

2. Transduction: open/close particluar ion channels

3. Transmission: reversal of charge along the length of receptor to afferent neuron to the CNS.
INTEROCEPTION*
inside change

temperature change, change in blood pH, applied pressure(when youve eaten too much, stomach stretch)
EXTEROCEPTOR*
ouside change

thermal temperature, chemical pH, mechanical pressure.
Name the senses of the NERVOUS SYSTEM
free nerve, specialized cells extrememly sensitive to specific stimuli, chemical pH, pressure, multiple/complex
PROPRIOCEPTION*
patrically chemical and pressure

- knowing youre moving or stationary, relationship of head/feet
TASTE
chemical

insects taste w feet
fish have taste buds all over
SMELL
chemical

special cells line the nose, muscus
HEARING
mechanical

requires transmission of sound waves

ear designed to AMPLIFY sound
Sound is transmitted...
through waves causing vibrations in tympanic membrane.
RODS
sensitive under dim light

more rhodopsin
CONES
sensitive bright light

less rhodopsin

green, blue, red wavelengths
What groups contain eyes?
Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, Vertebrates

all have same pigment of rhodopsin
What is the pigment in the eye?
Rhodopsin
CORNEA
outer covering
PUPIL
hole in eye

size regulated by iris muscle
LENS
position or shape of lens determins if light goes back to retina

channels and focuses light to retina
RETINA
made of rodes and cones
STEREOSCOPIC or BINOCULAR vision?
Right and LEft eyes have different field of view.
Light + ______
Heat: another electromagnetic stimulus
Acetylcholine
specific neurontransmitter for neurons --> skeletal muscle.