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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
____________converts solar energy into chemical energy by _____________.
___Producers____
four basic types of building blocks are: __________, _____________, _______________,and ____________
: ___monosaccharides___, __amino acids___, __nucleotides___, and __fatty acids___.
Consumers can be divided into two types: _______ and __________.
__herbivores__ and __carnivores__.
Carnivores can be divided into two types:
__predators__ and __scavangers__.
Producers utilize_________ and _____________ to form__________ through photosynthesis
___water___ and __carbon dioxide___ to form ___carbohydrates__
Cheetah is considered to be a ________ predator, because it hunts predominantly ______________.
__specialist__

___Thomson’s gazelles__.
In Oregon, the ___________ have developed resistance to the tetrodotixin, a potent _________ produced by the ___________.
garter snakes

neurotoxin

taricha newts
The Nile crocodile is an example of a __________ predators, and their hunting tactic is by __________
__generalists__

__stealth__
______ have become master hunters of the night sky with the use of _________ to map their environments with pinpoint accuracy.
___Bats___

____echolocation__
To detect the approaching bats, _______ have developed a simple ______ to detect the ______ sound emitted by the bats.
___moths___
__ear__
___ultrasonic___
To escape from predation, the moths will alter their _______when they detect approaching ________.
___flight paths__

____bats___
The ___________- shut off their ____________ when they get closed to a moth, relying entirely on their hearing.
brown big-eared bats

sonar
Using a group cooperative strategy, ____________ work together to hung _________.
chimpanzees

colobus monkey
Chimpanzees subsist mainly on a __________diet, but they occasionally supplement their diet with meat from hunting the __________________.
vegetarian

colobus monkeys
In the past 50 years, a ___________ system has been developed to raise cattle in confinement and to feed them with __________.
feedlot

corn
To prevent the spread of __________ diseases, the cattle feeds are heavily supplemented with ___________.
infectious

antibiotics
The excessive use of antibiotics in the _________ system to raise cattle increases the probability of the emergence of antibiotic resistant ____________ strains.
feedlot

bacterial
The bacteria reside on the human body is known as the ________, they are known as ___________.
normal flora

commensalists
Microorganisms are found on the mucous linings of the: ___________, _____________, _____________, _______________ and _______________
___oral cavity___, ___upper respiratory tract___, __small intestine__, ___large intestine___, and ___urogenital tract___.
The expulsion mechanisms of the innate defense system include:__________, __________, _____________, and ____________.
__sneezing__, __coughing__, __tearing___, and ___flow of urine___.
The four clinical signs of inflammation are: _____________, ___________, ____________, and ____________.
__redness__, __heat___, __pain___, and ___swelling___.
During inflammation, ____________ engulf and destroy bacteria in a process known as ________________.
macrophages

phagocytosis
Pus contains dead ____________ and ________________
___bacteria___ and ___macrophages___.
The ___________________ live in the follicles of hair and eyelashes in forming a ____________ relationship.
hair follicle mites

commensalistic
The two common bacterial venereal diseases are: __________ and _____________
___gonorrhea___ and ___syphilis___
The bacterial disease that causes most death in the world is ___________.
tuberculosis
The genetic materials of viruses could be either__________ or _____________
___DNA___ or ___RNA___.
Viruses can only reproduce inside a ________. They are known as ___________ parasites and cannot be treated by ____________.
cell

obligated

antibiotics
HIV infects the ______________ and destroys the ________________.
lymphocytes

immune system
Influenza virus has ____________ as its genetic materials.
RNA
Antigenic________ are minor changes in the sequence of the RNA due to __________.
drifts

mutation
Antigenic _____________ are major changes in the viral genes due to _______________ between different viral strains.
shifts

recombination
The last major global outbreak of influenza, known as __________ took place in _________
pandemic

1918
The species often involved in gene exchange that foster an influenza pandemic are__________, ____________, and _____________
___bird___, ___pig___, and ___human___.
The oldes living organism on earth is a _________________, known as the Methuselah tree, which is estimated over ____________ years old.
bristlecone pine

4,700
The following factors contribute to the longevity of the Methuselah tree: __________, ________________, _______________ and ______________.
___short growing season ___, ___cold temperature___, ___high wind___, and dense and resinous wood___.
The life span for the giant tortoise is _________ years, and the life span for a mouse is __________ years
177

3
The verified maximum human life span is __________ years
122
The life expectancies of early 18th century England, early 20th century America, and 21st century Japan are__________, _______________, and __________, respectively
___37___, ___47___, and ___81___,
The world’s lowest life expectancy is found in the nation of __________ with a life expectancy of _________.
Zambia

37
Recent studies have shown that 50% of the world population live on $________ per day and without ____________.
2

social security.
The top three causes of deaths in the US during 2001 are: ________,______________, and _________
___heart diseases___, ___cancer___, and ___strokes___.
The top ten causes of deaths in the world during 2002 include four infectious diseases: No. 4 _________, No. 7 ___________, No. 8 __________, and No. 9 __________.
HIV/AIDS

diarhea diseases

tuberculosis

malaria
During energy metabolism in the presence of ____________, highly reactive molecules known as _________ are produced.
oxygen

free radicals
Calorie restriction was first discovered in 1933 to extend ________ of ___________
life span

laboratory rats
Calorie restriction is a diet that reduces calorie intake to __________ of normal consumption, but with a supplement of ________.
60-70

essential nutrients
Calorie restriction has the following benefits: ___________, _______________, and _____________
___extension of life span___, ___slowing physiological decline___, and ___preventing age-related diseases___.
The main benefit of calorie restriction is the reduction of ____________ in a study involving a group of _________.
free radical damages

Rhesus monkeys
Agents that can mimic the phsyciological effects of calorie restriction are known as calorie restriction ____________. Resveratrol has been suggested to be such an agen found in ____________.
mimetic

grape skin
Cooperation can occur at the levels of ______________ and _______________ cooperation
intraspecies

interspecies
The river dolphins prey on small fish by swimming in synchrony to create _______ that drives the fish onto the ______________.
surge

shore or river bank.
The four types of intraspecies cooperation are ___________, ________________, _______________, and ______________.
mutualism___, ___reciprocity___, ___obligated altruism___, and ___facultative altruism___.
Herding, flocking, schooling are a form of __________________ based on the principle of ______________.
group or social defense

mutualism
The emergence of a similar behavioral trait such as herding, flocking, and schooling by organisms with distinct evolutionary ancestry is known as ___________
convergent evolution
Meerkats participate in reciprocity by taking turn to ______________ and to _______________________-
___care for their young___ and to ___stand sentry for aerial predators (eagles and hawks)___.
Studies have shown that the meerkats on sentry duty always select a perch close to their burrows. This observation has led to the development of the
personal safety hypothesis
Eusociality is also known as _____________.
kin selection
In the eusocial society, the workers are __________ females and ______________ to each other
sterile

sisters
The _________ live in a ____________ with only one ______________ and 30 to 40 workers.
mole rats

eusocial society

breeding pair
Florida scrub jay live in a society of _______________. The __________ stay with the _______ to help raise the young.
facultative altruism

juveniles

parents
The leafcutter ants live in a ____________ with only one ________________ in each colony.
eusocial society

reproductive female
The leafcutter ants harvest leaves in the tropical rain forest. They chew the leaves into a _________ to cultivate a ______ in their subterranean chambers
mulch

fungus
If the gardeners of the leafcutter ants were removed, their fungal culture will be ___________ by a ____________.
destroyed

pathogenic mold
The gardeners of the leafcutter ants control the pathogenic mold use _________ produced by __________ that they carry on their back.
antibiotics

bacteria
In r-selection, the reproductie rate is _______ and the investment in the offspring is _________ or __________
high

quantity

quality
The k-selection, the reproductive rate is _____, and the investment in the offsrping is ______ or _________
low

quality

quantity
The r-selection, the organisms generally have ________span, whereas in k-selection, the organisms have _______ life span
short

long
In r-selection, the organisms produce ___________ young than can ________ by the environment.
significantly more

be supported
Carrying capacity is defined as the ability of the environment to sustain the population of a species in ______________ density
a steady-state population
Technology can overcome population by the following factors: 1)____________ and __________________
1) ___discovering and making new resources available___ and 2) ___increasing productivity of existing resources___.
The world population was _____________ at 950 AD, and it reached _____________ in 1802.
250 million

1 billion
The world population was ___________ at 1802, and it reached ___________ in 1927.
1 billion

2 billion
The world population was ___________ at 1802, and it rached _______ in 1999.
1 billion

6 billion
The world population was ____________ at 1802, and it increased by _____ fold by 1999.
1 billion

6
The world population is growing by _________ per year, representing a growth rate of ___________.
75 million

1.2%
At the current growth rate, the world population will be between ___________ and ___________ billion by 2050.
9

12
The population of ______________ , is undergoing an population explosion. It has a population of ______ million in a state the size of Colorado.
Uttar Pradesh

177
In India the emphasis of _______ children has led to _______ million fewer women than men due to ______________.
male

35

abortion of female fetuses
India's population problem is rooted in ____________ and lack of _______________ by women
gender discrimination

reproductive choice
If India’s fertility rate drops to 2.0 by 2020, its population in 2050 will be _________ billion. If India’s fertility rate drops to 2.5, its population will reach __________ billion in 2050
1.6

2
List four global problems as a consequence of world overpopulation: ____________, ____________, ___________ and ____________.
___deforestation___, ___mass extinction___, ___pandemic diseases___, and ___war___.
List four social problems are caused by overpopulation____________, __________, ___________, and ___________.
___poverty___, ___illiteracy___, ___unemployment___, and ___increase crime rate___.
Japanese fertility rate has dropped to __________over the past two decades. If this trend continues, Japan’s population at the end of the century will be approximately __________ million
1.3

60
Japanese fertility trend suggests that economic stability and greater investment in only one child follow the pattern of __________ selection
k-
Japanese who postpones marriages and having children have been labeled in the Japanese society as ___________
parasite singles
Japanese have the longest life expectancy in the world with the average life expectancies for male and female at ________and _______ respectively
78

84
Japan’s population structure is opposite from____; it shapes like a(n) __________.
India

inversed pyramid
Japan’s low fertility rate can be contributed by two factors: ____________ and ________________
women entering the work force

high cost to raise a child
US has also seen a decline in fertility rate to below 2.0, but the US population will continue to grow slowly due to ____________.
immigration
prosperity of the US has adverse consequences on the world due to its high standard of living. US with 7% of the world’s population emit __________ of world's greenhouse gases. A child born in US will pollute ____________ times more during his/her lifetime than a child who is born in India
25

30
In many parts of Saharan Africa, social institutions have been crumbling due to ___________ which has ravaged the population segment between the age of ________ and ________
AIDS

20

60
If the world fertility rate stabilizes at 2.0, the world population will be ___________ billion in 2050. If the world fertility rate moves to 2.35, the world population be ________ billion
9

11
Global actions from individual to the governmental levels are vital in order to reach a future society of ___________ and _________________
shared prosperity

environmental sustainability
Different versions of the same gene are known as _______ which are generated by ________
alleles

mutation
Individual variations are resulted from ________ to produce a large number of _______ by the same individual
meiosis

gametes
Individual variations are the result of _____________
sexual reproduction
The six basis principles of natural selection are:____________, _______________, ___________, __________, ___________, and ____________.
1. ___Individuals must reproduce___
2. ___Individuals must be able to pass their traits to the next generation___
3. ___Variability must exists among individuals___
4. ___The environment cannot support all offspring___
5. ___Individuals with favorable traits will leave more offspring___
6. ___Individuals with least favorable traits will die out___
selection is a process by which biological populations are changed over time as a result of the propagation of ____________ that affect the capacity of individual organisms to _____________.
heritable traits

survive and reproduce
Dog is one of the ___________ of wolf. Dog is classified as ________________.
subspecies

Canis lupus familaris
Molecular data suggest that the dog and wolf ancestries started to separate about______ years ago. Human and wolf remains have been found together as early as __________ years ago.
150,000

400,000
Evidence of modern dogs appears about _________ years ago, and the evidence of the early dog was found __________ years ago in cave art.
14,000

5,000
The two hypothesis of dog domestication are: ________________ and __________________
___the human adoption hypothesis___
and
___the mutual selection hypothesis___.
The mutual selection hypothesis proposes that early wolves approached human encampment to ______. The wolves that were least afraid of humans adopted a new lifestyle.
scavenge
One theory suggests that the early semi-domesticated wolves might have helped modern humans to: ________________ and ______________
___out-compete the Neandertrals___
and
___develop language___.
During the breeding of tame foxes in Russia, other unusual traits, such as _______________ and ____________ were also bred. The reduction in __________ and other hormones is likely to play a role
multi-color coat

barking

adrenalin
All dogs are genetically differed by about 0.1%. The traits of different breeds of dog have been recently shown to due to differences in the ____________ of the dog __________
regulatory regions

DNA
There are six main classes of dogs: ____________, _____, _____, _______, __________ and ______________.
___sporting___, ___hound___, ___Terriers___, ___working___, ___herding___, ___toy___.
Salukis are the ____________ mammal in a _________ mile race.
fastest

3
Systema Naturae was published by ______________ in 1735. Throughout his lifetime, he classified 7,700 species of ________ and 4,400 species of____________
Linnaeus

plants

animals
Biological classification is also known formally as biological __________. Today over _________ million species have been classified
systematics

1.4
Modern biological classification is based on ____________ and ___________.
___common descent___
and
___ancestral relationship___.
________________ is a classification method similar to constructing a ________, where ancestral relationships is mapped.
cladistic classification

family tree
An outmoded classification system originated with __________ 350 BC stressed the immutability of living organisms and their arrangement from simple to complex organisms is known as______________
Aristotle

scala naturae
The great apes include four biological organisms ___________, ___________, __________, ___________
___orangutan___, ___gorilla___, ___chimpanzee___, and ___humans___.
Orangutans are the largest ___________ animals. They are only found in ____________ and ___________.
arboreal

Sumatra

Borneo
There are _________ species of gorilla: the _________ and _________ gorillas
two

Western

Eastern
They are ________ dwelling with few natural predators. They are quadrupedal, using a locomotion behavior known as __________________
ground

knuckle walking
Project Koko trained a female gorilla from 1 year of age to communicate with ____________. Koko has a vocab of ____________ words
sign language

1,000
There are two species of chimpanzees: the ________ chimpanzee and the ___________ chimpanzee
common

bonobo or the pygmy
Chimpanzees use ___________ as an activity for developing ________ bonds
grooming

social
The great ape lineage split from the ____________ about 18 million years ago
lesser ape
____________ split into the genera __________ and _____________ about 6 million year ago.
Hominini

Pan

Homo