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45 Cards in this Set

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codon
messenger RNA triplets
(sequences of three bases in mRNA of the protein. There are also start and stop codongs that signal the beginning and end of protien synthesis. )
translation
making mRNA into protien
(the process whereby the sequence of bases of messender RNA is converted into sequence of amino acids of a protien.
transcription
making DNA into RNA
(the synthesis of RNA molecule from a DNA template. All types of RNA are transcribed from DNA)
role of mRNA
transfer infomation from DNA into proteins
(carry infomation from the nucleus to the ribosomes about the sequence of amino acids in the protein to be manufactured)
Interphase G1
cell growth before duplication
Interphase G2
growth after duplication
Interphase S
chromosomes replicated or duplication
Cytokinesis
division in cytoplasm
(the cytoplasm is split into two daughter cells, each recieving one of the newly formed nuclei and roughly equal amounts of cytoplasm)
Centromere
a place where the sister chromatids re attached to each other
Kinetochore
protien located in the central of the chromosomes, attaches the spindle so the chromosomes can move toward the two sides
sister chromatids
duplication of chromosomes / occurs in meiosis II
(each chromatid is a single DNA of the original chromosomes before replication. During cell division the two sister chromatids separate with each chromatid becoming an independent daughter chromosomes)
centriole
in animals each microtubule organizing center contains a pair of centrioles
Dominant allele
masks the expression of the recessive gene: the expressed gene
Recessive allele
only expressed in homozygotes and which is completely masked in heterozygotes
Heterozygous
different pairs
EX: Aa
Homozygous
carrying two copies of the same allele in a given gene : EX: AA and aa
genotype
inside the cell, the combination of all alleles
phenotype
physical makeup which you can see (morphological expression of the gene)
polymerase chain reaction
amplifies DNA, makes several copies of DNA
genetic drift
the result of natural selection and mutations, you have an inheritance of acquired characters as a result
(two important points : tends to reduce genetic variability within a small population. tends to increase genetic variability between populations
natural selection
tends to favor favorable characters to allow adaptations of species

(1.Does not cause genetic changes in individuals
2. befalls individuals, evolution occurs in populations
3. evolution is a change in the allele frequencies in the population owning to differential reproduction among organisms bearning different alleles
Population in equilibrium
populatioin is set to evolve if it has no allele frequencies
- A population is to be isolated as well when there is no gene flow
Cause for evolutionary change
natural selection, genetic drift
mutations
can be good, can be caused, cannot control what will be the outcome
allopatric speciation
geographical separation
symptric speciation
there are different environments, for example air and land
use of plasmid and their replication
replication independently from chromosomes, Used to Transfer DNA
DNA recombiation
occurs in nature through sexual reproduction, bacterian transformation, viral infection, viral transfer
RFLP or Restriction Fragment Polymorphism
an enzyme which cuts the DNA in several lengths
First Recombinant Drug
Humulin, human insulin
Transfer of DNA molecule in Transgenic organism
scientists use virus, bacteria and plasmids (inside bacteria) to transfer the DNA
Forensic biotechnology
used for identifying criminals and victims
Transgenic
has foreign DNA introduced into its gene
Phylogeny
takes into consideration of the evolutionary history of the organism, as a priority
Systematics
a classification of any organism
Correct spelling of a scientific name
the Genus name must start with a capital letter, the species name is in lower case / they must either be italicized or underlined
Bt toxin
not toxic to humans or plants, however it is toxic to several organisms,
made by bacterium, used in botox
Identification and separation of DNA segment
Gel Electrophoresis is the main component,
Primer, PCR, and Thermocycler are just tools which aid in this process
Sequence of nitrogen-containing bases or nucleotides
U,A,T,G,C - all nucleotides
DNA- ATGC RNA- AUGC
Bases in DNA and RNA
RNA- U DNA-T
Classification
the largest group is kingdom
the smallest group is species
Characteristics of plant cell division
there are no centrioles in animal cells, plant cells create a cell plate doewn the middle of the cell
Similarities of DNA and RNA
both have a similar phosphate group
Translation
mRNA into protien
Transcription
DNA into mRNA