• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/39

Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
gametophyte
-multicellular
-unisexual or bisexual
- produce haploid gametes cells(flagellated sperm or eggs)
Male gametophyte
-release sperm into environment
-fuse with retained female gametes(fertillization)
-resaults in zygote
zygote
-develops into the diploid, multicellular sporophyte.
sporophyte
-releases haploid spores
- germinate and grow into multicellular haploid gametophyte.
Gametangia
-jacketed nulti-cellular structures
-occurs in all seedless plants
- gametes are produced
*two types exists
1. antheridia
2. archegonium
Antheridia
-produce flagellated sperm
-swim to archegonium
Archegonium
-contains single egg
-new sporophyte grows
Sporophyte-> growth
-anchored to gametophyte by a foot
-initially dependent on gametophyte (zygote to early embryo)
Land plants
Alternate between diploid and haploid stage
diploid stage plants
-called gametophyes
-produce haploid gametes via mitosis
-release into enviorment
-gametes fuse to create diploid zygote.
-grows into sporophyte generation (diploid)
Haploid stage plants
-called sporophye generation
-undergoes meiosis to produce haploid spores
-relased into enviorment
-grows into gametophyte generation (haploid)
Bryophytes
mosses and their kin
3 distint phyla
1. hepatophyta
2. anthocerophyta
3. bryophyto
Bryophytes characterized by:
*small hebaceous (nonwoody) bodies
Bryophytes obtain nutrients via
-thin leaves
- few cells thick, closely hug stem
Bryophytes structure
-use rhizoids
-long tubes or stacks single cell or filaments of cell
-anchor plants into ground
Bryophyte phyla 1

phylum hepatophyta
(liverworts)
2 types
1. thallose liverworts
2. leafy liverworts
Phylum heptophyta

Thallose liverworts
-do not have leaf/stem organization
-consists of flat, spreading bodies or thalli
example:Marchantia, conocephalum
Phylum heptophyta

leafy liverworts
-small leaf like stuctures
-not true leaves
evolution of non-vascular seedlesss plants
1. gametophyte dominatnt life stage
-poses antheridia and archegonia
2. sporophyte grows from archegonium
3. reproduction water dependent.
bryophytes taxa
liverworts
hornworts
mosses
Lecture 12
Plant diversity 1
Plants evolved from green algae
shared characteristics:
- multicellular
-eukaryotic
-photosynthetic
-cell walls contain cellulose
Charophyceans
-closest land plant relative
-inhabit shallow ephemeral waters
-algea
Plant and charophyceans similarites
-rose shaped complexes for cellulose sunthesis(not linear)
-perozisome enzymes
-phragmoplast(specilized microtubes)
Terrestrial plant evolution
-land invation during ORDOVICIAN 480 BYA.
adaptions cuticle, sporopollenin
Cuticle
waterproof epidermal layer that keeps h20 in
sporopollenin
durable ploymer
prevents pollen/spores from drying out
Unique plants charactes

apical meristems
Meristem-undifferntiated cells allowing growth
UPC

alternation of generations
multicellular IN individuals alternates
UPC

Sporangia contain walled spores
sporangia contain spurganin
UPC

Multicellular gametangia
gamete producing organ
UPC

multicellular dependant embryos
zygote retained within females
embroy nurished
placental transferells
Evolution of vascular plants
seedless and seed
vascular tissue
cells form tubes to transport h20 and nutrient
1. xylem
2. phloem
Xylem transport
water and minerals
Phloem transport
sugar and organic
Vascular plants are...
Sporophyte dominant
Roots purpose:
anchor plants
absorb nutrients
provides support
leaves purpose:
surface
increases photosynthesis