Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Structural Components of Viruses
Simplest of biological systems that are not placed in the 3 domains. Viruses lack metabolic machinery of cells (protein coat and genetic material) THEY DO REPLICATE.

Non-cellular, protein coat around nucleic core, DNA or RNA, 4 basic structures: helical, icosahedral,enveloped, complex.
Helical Virus Shape
Capsid - outer shell of virus
Capsomer: functional unit of capsid. (self assemble)
Icosahedral Virus Shape
Self assembled
Enveloped Virus Shape
Derived from the host name, host does not recognize as foreign, helical on the inside.
Complex Virus Shape
Bacteriophage, Made of head, tail sheath, tail fiber, helical inside of tail.
-Heterotrophs and phototrophs (hair-like projections like flagella).
-Heterotrophs are either parasitic or free-living (algae--> phototrophs)
Oomycetes (Stramenopila)
-Molds, rusts, mildews
-Egg Fungi
-Lost plastids
-Plant pathogens (potato blight)
Diatoms (Stramenopila)
-Unicellular photosynthetic algae
-shell composed of silica (glass)
-generally asexual
Golden Algae (Stramenopila)
-2 flagella
-photosynthetic some mixotrophic or even phagocytotic
-indicators of water pollution
-Brown Algae: 3 parts --> blade, stipe, holdfast,
-contain amoebas
-move and feed using pseudopodia
-dispersed across many eukaryotic taxa
-Chlorarachniophytes & Foraminiferans
-Marine Protists whose tests are fused into one delicate piece made of silica.
-Axopodia = pseudopodia, radiate from central body and are reinforced by bundles of microtubules.
-smaller organisms attach from axopodia
-accumulate as ooze on ocean floor.
-include gymnamoebas, entamoebas, & slime molds
Gymnamoebas (Amoebozoans)
-large varied group
-live in soil, fresh water, and marine environments
-feed on bacteria and detritus
Entamoebas (Amoebozoans)
-parasites that infect classes of vertebrates and some invertebrates
Slime Molds (Amoebazoans)
-once thought of to be fungi because they produce fruiting bodies that aid in spore dispersal
Rhodophyta (red algae)
-phycoerythrin (accessory pigment); no flagellate stages
Chlorophyta (green algae)
-plant-type chloroplasts
-Aveoli (small membrane-bound cavities) under plasma membrane
Dinoflagellates (Alveolata)
-Usually unicellular
-Marine and freshwater phytoplankton community
-Symbiotic relationship with coral
-central groove
Apicomplexans (Alveolata)
-sexual and asexual
-two or more hosts needed
Ciliates (Alveolata)
-Macronucleus >50 copies of genome (controls everyday function, asexual reporduction)
-Micronuclei, 1-80 copies of genome, required for sexual reproduction
-use cilia to move around
-Flagellated: locomotion
-Autotrophic, mixotrophic, heterotrophic
Kinetoplastids (Euglenids)
-1 large mitochondria that houses extranuclear DNA (the kinetoplast)
-Trypansoma brucei (african sleeping syndrome)
Euglenids (Euglenids)
-1-3 flagell, facultatively photosynthetic
-Trichomonas raginalis, inhabits human vagine and male urethra
-Most common pathogenic protozoan infection of humans in industrialized countries
-low birth weight, premature, allows for other STD's
Diplominadida & Parabasala
-Lack Plastids
-Mitochondria do not have DNA, electron transport chains, or citric acid cycle enzymes
-Both found in anaerobic environments
-Diplomonads have 2 nuclei and many flagella (giardia)
High Diversity amongst protists
-Endosymbiotic model
-Cyanobacteria engulfed by ancestral heterotroph
What are Protists?
-Nutritionally diverse
-Usually Aquatic
-Sexual and asexual reproduction
-possess specialized organelles
-highly diverse
Protist means...
"Eukaryote that isn't a fungi, animal, and plant"
Antibiotic Misuse
-Indiscriminate use of antibiotics leads to resistant forms of pathogenic bacteria
-antibiotic misuse includes: over prescription, misuse by patients, antibiotics in animal feed and cleaning products
-CDC states this is one of the world's largest health problems
-using prokaryotes to clean up toxic waste
Prokaryotes in the Ecosystem
-convert inorganics into usuable forms
-strong eukaryotic relationships
-antibiotic misuse
-produces essential nitrogen
Conjugation of Prokaryotes
-Some DNA transfer possible
-conjugation = recombination of genes (sexual of a kind)
Binary Fission
-Asexual reproduction
General Structure of Bacteria
-Flagella, plasmids, pilus, capsule, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA
-Capsule made of polysccahrides
Gram Negative and Gram Positive Bacteria
-Cell wall provides structure and osmotic projection
-Distinguishes between species based on cell wall
-Antibiotics work to disrupt peptidoglycan formation

Unifying traits of Prokaryotes
-No membrane enclosed nucleus
-No organelles
-No mitosis or meiosis
-Mostly asexual
3 Basic morphologies of Bacteria
-Coccus (grapes)
-Bacillus (elongated)
-Spirillian (spaghetti)
-Misfolded proteins (no nucleic acid)
-Cause degenerative neural diseases
-resistent to heat and other sterilization methods
-long incubation periods (10 years)
-Turn normal proteins into prions by physical contact
-from plaques in brain (cavities)
-Mad cow disease
-small circular single-stranded RNA
-No Protein coat
-Do not code for any proteins
-causes a lot of agricultural damage
-delta-viruses are viral parasites
-silences genes
-attacks plants
-turns hepatitis b --> d
Lysogenic and Lytic Pathways
-Lysogenic have no cell death
-Lytic has cell death
Bacteriophage reproduction
-5 steps to reproduction: attachment, penetration, replication, assembly, release
-2 modes of reproduction: lytic mode and lysogenic
-misleading due to HOMOPLASY
- Homoplasies: another word for analogous traits
-The hypothesis that requires the least number of evolutionary events. (Occam's Razor)
-all members stemming from a common ancestor
Monophyletic group except the descendants have been removed
-Reptiles remove class aves
Punctuated Equilibrium
-Change occurs at start of new species
-Remain static for majority of their existence
-Caveat: behavior, physiology, internal anatomy may change before morphology in fossils.
Two basic patterns of evolutionary change
-Anagenesis: gradual transition of one species
-No splitting from the phylogenetic tree
-Cladogenesis: branching of one or more new species from a parent species
-very gradual
Allopatric speciation
-odds of increase when population is small and isolated
-genetic drift and natural slelection more effective
-small failures
Sympatric speciation
-reproductive barriers evolve between overlapping populations
-results from polyploidy
-shifts in habitat and mate preference
Patterns of Speciation
-Allopatric: geological separation
-Sympatric: biologocal factors
Reproductive Isolation
-Barriers to gene flow
-Prezygotic barriers: impede fertilization
-postzygotic barriers: prevents successful propogation of offspring
Where do Species come From?
New Breeding population --> Evolution --> reproductive isolation --> New Species --> biodiversity
Adaptive Radiation
-Evolution of many species from a common ancestor
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Theory (5 conditions)
-Migration (gene flow)
-Non-random Mating
-Natural selection
-genetic drift
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Theorem
allele and genotype frequncies remain constant in a population between generations
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
Where do new species come from?
Evolution: change in allele frequencies in a population over time
-population localized group of interbreeding individuals
-gene pool total aggregate of alleles in population.
Plate Tectonics
-not only are organisms changing over time, the earth is changing as well.
-Ring of Fire (Pacific Area)
-Mass Extinction during heterozoic.
The Endosymbiotic Model
-small prokaryotes enter host as prey or parasite (undigested)
-host gain a selective advantage (energy from mitochondria agent)
-host and enosymbionts become single organism)
-Rock-like structures comprised of photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) and sediment
-lickely the first groups of photsynthetic bacteria
-oldest known fossils formed 3.5 BYA
From Protobiont to Prokayote
-Chemoautotrophic (relies on chemicals like sulfur derived energy and methane)
-Photoautotrophic (relies on sun)
-RNA: the original heredity unit
-Self replicate/splice
-Catalyze reactions
-Possess a genotype and phenotype
Extraterrestrial Origin
-Muchison, Australia, 1969- carbonaceous chondrite meteorite falls and found to contain common amino acids
-Analysis of light spectral indicate the existence of organic molecules in interstellar gas and dust.
-10-15% is organic
Hydrothermal Vents
-volcanic activity produces a reducing environment
-early life started here
-life relied on sulfur, NOT the sun
The First Cell
-Abiotic synthesis of small orgo molecules (monomers --> polymers)
-polymers and monomers made into protobionts
-self replication