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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The number of people estimates to have ever been born is:
100 billion
What is the cause of the Earth's Seasons?
The earth's axis of rotation is tilted in its orbital plane
Elements, suchh as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, iron, calcium, and phosphorus, are:
Forged in the stars
Cystic fibrosis affects the funtion of the respiratory tract through the:
covering of the alveolar cells with mucas
The alternation of DNA seqence is known as:
mutation
Meiosis is the process for producing:
Sperm, Eggs, and Gametes
The DNA backbone is made up of _____ and _____
Sugar and Phosphate
Watson and Crick received a Nobel Prize in ______ for their discovery of the structure of DNA
1962
The genetic code contains ____ bases
3
All of the following traits are dominat, except _________?

A. Free ear lode
B. Green Eye color
C. Widow's Peck
D. Brown eye color
B. Green eye color
Tay-Sachs, there is full enzyme production, if the genotype is ___________.
TT
In the human population, i in ____ carries at least one copy of the defective genes that are currently known to cause genetic disorders.
20
The portion of the human genome that encodes all the genes is ___%
1.5
The human body has an average 100 __________cells
trillion
Prokaryotic cells include _____, and they have ________ _________.
bacteria, no organelle
The formation of tissue/organ/body plan begins during_______
Gastrulation
Gastrulation begins at ________ days after zygote formation.
10 to 14
The______is a female sex organ homologous to the penis.
Clitoris
Penile erection is mediated through________.
Corpus cavensum
The litoris and the __________are homologous organs.
Penis
Tay-Sachs, there is full enzyme production, if the genotype is ___________.
TT
In the human population, i in ____ carries at least one copy of the defective genes that are currently known to cause genetic disorders.
20
The portion of the human genome that encodes all the genes is ___%
1.5
The human body has an average 100 __________cells
trillion
Prokaryotic cells include _____, and they have ________ _________.
bacteria, no organelle
The formation of tissue/organ/body plan begins during_______
Gastrulation
Gastrulation begins at ________ days after zygote formation.
10 to 14
The______is a female sex organ homologous to the penis.
Clitoris
Penile erection is mediated through________.
Corpus cavensum
The litoris and the __________are homologous organs.
Penis
Humans and chimpanzees have identical brain structure, but one part of the human brain is grossly enlarged. It is_____.
Frontal cortex
The flagellum provided______for the sperm cells.
Propelling force for motility
The precursor for the male sexual reproductive organs is the ________duct.
Wolffian
Clown fish have sex determination system of____.
Protandry sequential hermaphrodites
Tuner Syndrome is the result of a chromosomal configuration of ________.
XO
The human ovum is all the following, except

A. Largest cell in the human body
B. Visible to the naked eye
C. Produced in the ovary
D. 14.5 Um in the diameter
E. Surrounded by a layge or follicle cells
D. 14.5 um in diameter
Male red-spiders use _____ to compete for mates.
Mating gifts
The genetic code is nearly universal in all organisms. Explain this code and how it is used to make proteins.
The genetic code is a three letter code. Every three bases of the gene, and thus the mRNA, encode for a specific amino acid. The mRNA is read in three base interbals and the corresponding amino acid is added to a growing protein.
Descride the size of the human genome, how long it took to get fully sequenced and the approximate number of genes that were found. Was this number expected?
The total size of the human genome is 3 billion bases long. The process of sequencing the entire human genome took nearly 15 years to complete. The number of genes found was much lower than expected, roughly 20,000 - 30,000 genes.
Explain how we can move from genes to traits. Include in your answer the Central Godma of transcription and translation.
The genetic information in our DNA that encodes for protein is called a gene. During transription an RNA copy of the gene is made. The gene then travels to the cytoplasm where it is read by special proteins that interpret the code and combine amino acid in teh correct order to create a protein.
Explain the biological process for assuring the likelihood of two siblings (other than identical twins) to be born genetically identical is less that 1 in 70 trillion.
The process is based on the random distribution of the paternal and maternal chromosomes in the gametes. This mechanism along generates 8.38 million different gametes. this number of gametes from each of the mating partners results in 70 trillion different possible genetic combinations in their offspring.
How does the influenza virus cycle of infection demonstrate the commonality of life? Include in your answer the four characteristics of the Commonality of life.
One way is that our own cell can replicate the viral RNA genome. Also, our own cell will read the RNA and make mRNA copies of it. Finally our cellular machinery for making new proteins will make viral proteins from teh nRNA because of the commality of the genetic codes which are; same biological building blocks, smae genetic codes, some biosynthetic processes, and similar enzymes serving as catalysts for biological reactions.
Defined dominance in genetic. Five the dominant traits in eye color, hairline, and earlode attachemtn.
Dominance condition - hides the recessive trait in the phenotype of an individual. Dominace traits:
Brown Eyes
Widow's Peak
free earlobe
List five applications of the study of the human genome.
1.Genetic testing
2.research in diseases
3.new therapeutic procedures
4.evolution of human species
5.ethnic group disease vulnerability
Explain the concept of differentiation gene expression.
Differential gene expression suggests that different cell types possess the same set of genes. When cells become differentiated, only the relevant genes are expressed to produce their protein products, whereas the irrelevant genes are suppressed from expression.
Briefly explain the concept of secondary sexual characteristics.
Secondary sexual characteristics are not directly involved in reproduction. They function to increase the sexual attractivness of the individual in order to gain courtship advantage, which leads to greater reproductive success.
How does the SRY gene control sexual development>
The SRY gene control sexual development by producing a regulatory protein the initates male sexual development through the stimulation of testosterone production.
Describe the three general competing mechanism used by males for mating.
Fighting each other by using weapons.
Attraction by using ornaments.
Coercion by doing forced mating.
explain what the operational sex ratio is (OSR_) and include if it is biased towards males or females.
The operational sex ratio between sexually receptive males to sexually receptive femalse. All sexually reproduced organisms have an OSR that is biased towards males. There are far more sexually receptive males than females at any point in time. This reflects a situation of supply and demand. the males must compete with each other for a small number of receptive females with the choice of mate.