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15 Cards in this Set

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who stated that organisms change over generations and physical features change with use. [example -- giraffe's neck] AND name two problems with this theory.
Jean Lamarck

two problems: 1) change doesn't happen within ine indiv. lifetime
2) change DOESNT directly pass to offspring
fature that has become common in a population because the feature provides a selective advantage
Four parts to the Theory of Evolution
1) variation exists within the genes of every population
2) in particular environ. some individ. of a population are better suited to survive
3) overtime, traits that made certain indiv of a opo survive spread in that population
4) overwhelming evidence from fossils and many other sources say that living species evolved from extinct organisms
2 models of evolution and description
1) gradualism - gradual chance over a long period of time leading to species formation
2) punctuated equilibrium - preiods of rapid change in species separated by periods of little or no change (Steven J Gould and Niles Eldredge)
homologous structures and vestigal structures
homologous - structures that share a common ancestry
vestigal - structures that are considered to be evidence of an organisms evolutionary past
4 factors in natural selection
1) all populations have genetic variation
2) there are challenges in the environment -> these affect successful reproduction
3) individuals produce more offspring than the environment can support
4) individuals better able to cope with challenges in environment -> more offspring
subspecies - overtime populations of the same species that differ genetically because of adaptations to different living conditions
divergence - accumulation of difference between groups
speciation - process by which new species form
6 types of reproductive isolation
1) geographical isolation
2) ecological isolation
3) temporal isolation
4) behavorial isolation
5) mechanical isolation
6) reproductive failure
two examples of natural selection
1) TB bacterium - 1 case -- andibiotic resistance from 1 point mutation - resistant strain advantage
2) Darwin's finches - variety of beaks >> respond to food supply - 9 species believed all came from 1 species >>>> 1973 the Grants tracked beak size year to year
Charles Darwin -- book title. age when started voyage. how many years on the voyage.
On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection. 22. 6 years
Malthus' contribution
said human population increased faster than the food supply - - competition
evolutionary trees
attempt to explain the evolutionary patters among animals
reproductive isolation
condition in which two populations of the same species do not breed with one another because of their geographical separation
natural selection / allele frequency
survival of the fittest -- natural selection causes the frequency of certain alleles in a population to increase/decrease overtime
year Darwin published On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection