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40 Cards in this Set

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developed a model of DNA as a double helix, in which 2 strands are wound together
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watson and crick in 1953
DNA is composed of monomers called
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nucletides
What are the 3 parts in the nucleotide?
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5-C sugar called deoxyribose
phosphate group
nitrogen-containing base
2 types of bases in DNA:
PURINES:have a double ring of C&N.
2 exs..
----
adenine (A) and guanine (G)
2 types of bases in DNA:
PYRIMIDINES:have a single ring of C&N.
2 exs..
----
cytosine (C) and thymine (T)
A pairs with...
C pairs with...
----
A~T
C~G
the bases of one strand are held to the bases of the other strand by ________
----
hydrogen bonds
-DNA and protein form this
-thin,uncoiled strands
-when it thikens and coils,
it forms chromosomes
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chromatin
DNA Reproduction:
when the ______ untwists, the 2 strands of DNA are paralled
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double helix
and ___ unzips the hydrogen bonds b/w the bases
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enzyme
The strands of ___ seperate and each half of the DNA molecule serves as a pattern for a new formation
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nucleotides
the newly formed complementary strands join with the old strands with the aid of another ____
----
enzyme
the connected strands twist to form ___ identical DNA molecules
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2
Replication can begin at ____ simultaneously on the same molecule making the process faster
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many points
What kinds of damages do enzymes need to repair to the DNA? This is called ____.
----
~heat, radiation
~mutations
RNA deals with
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protein synthesis
~single nucleotide
~sugar is ribose
~contains uracil instead of thymine
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RNA
carries info from DNA to ribosome for protein synthesis
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messenger RNA (mRNA)
carries the proper amino acids to the ribosomes for assembly
----
transfer RNA (tRNA)
a major component of ribosomes
----
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
formation of proteins
(translation)
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Protein Synthesis
proteins are made by joining amino acids which is the monomer into long chains called ____
----
polypeptides
amino acids are held together by ____
----
peptide bonds
(C~N bonds)
A protein only functions properly if the amino acids are in ____
----
the proper order
what do enzymes control in the cell?
----
cell activity
the info for making proteins is called ___
----
the genetic code (DNA)
DNA give the information to ____
----
mRNA
the process of making mRNA from instruction in DNA is called____. this creates mRNA with a base sequence complementary to DNA.
----
transcription
a ___ is a group of 3 DNAs
a ___ is a group of 3 RNAs
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triplet
codon
each codon codes for a _____
----
specific amino acid
mRNA carries the code from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the ______.
----
cytoplasm
tRNA carries the proper amino acids to the ribosomes where they are assembled by the process called ____.
----
translation
the 3 bases on the tRNA molecule are complementary to the mRNA codons and are called _____.
----
anticodons
changes in the DNA sequence that affects genetic info are called ____.
----
mutations
environmental factors that cause mutations

ex- x-rays, radiation, asbestos, tars from tabacco, viruses
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mutagens
specific DNA on the chromosome that codes for a specific characteristic
----
gene
gene mutations result from a change in ____
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a single gene
_____ invole changes in the number or structure of chromosomes
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chromosome mutations
a gene is expressed when a gene is activated, resulting in the formation of a _____
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protein
cells regulate which proteins are active by controlling ______.
----
gene expression