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256 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
which life function provides an organism with energy
respiration
To obtain sharp and exact focus when using the low power lens of a compound microscope, a student must use what?
Fine adjustment knob
What is the size of a cell measured under high power (400x Mag) if the size of the cell measured under low power (100x Mag) is 20 micrometers?
20 Micrometers
To remove the nucleus from one cell and insert it into another cell, a biologist must use a what?
Micro dissection tool
Which part of an experiment is the comparison group?
Control
The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in all living things; this is a basic concept of what?
Cell theory
A student observes a cell with a microscope; the student can identify the cell as a plant cell and not an animal because of the presence of what?
Cell wall
Identify the organelle that is the energy factory of the cell
Mitochondrion
The movement of water into an amoeba through its cell membrane takes place by what?
Osmosis
Organisms are classified on the bases of all the following except what: similarity of structure, similarity of function, evolutionary development, phylogeny?
Similarity of function
Necator americanus is the scientific name for a hookworm. What part of the organism’s scientific name is necator?
Genus
Which of the following takes control of the host cell’s nucleus by destroying its DNA, inserting its own genetic material and taking over the life functions of the host cell? Virus, bacterium, paramecium, slime mold?
Virus
Prokaryotic organisms:
Lack of nuclear membrane
The animal-like protists contain what?
amoeba and paramecium
Eukaryotic organisms with cells lacking chloroplasts that are heterotrophs and obtain their food by absorption from decaying vegetation are characteristic of what?
Fungi
Bryophytes are in the kingdom of what?
Plantae
Exoskeletons composed of chitin are charteristics of what?
Anthropda
Having lungs, being warm blooded and having a four-chambered heart are characteristics of what?
Aves
19. The formation of a large molecule from two or more smaller molecules by the removal of water is known as what?
Dehydration synthesis
Lipids are composed of what?
Glycerol and fatty acids
Which of the following elements is found only proteins; hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or carbon?
Nitrogen
Which of the following pH values indicates the strongest acid; 3, 6, 7, or 8?
3
Enzyme action can best be explained by what?
Fluid mosaic model
All the following are factors that affect the rate of enzyme action except; oxygen concentration, substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, or pH?
Oxygen concentration
Identify the structures in the lower epidermis of a leaf that allow carbon dioxide in and water and oxygen out.
Stomates
Which of the following molecules is produced during the dark reactions of photosynthesis; PGAL, ATP, DNA, or CO2?
PGAL
Which cells in a vein are specialized for the upward transport of materials?
Xylem
Select the cells that have a large surface area and are specialized for the increased absorption of water.
Root hair cells
In humans, the end products of digestion enter the what?
Blood
Which blood vessels have thick, muscular walls that pulse and carry blood away from the heart to the organs?
Arteries
Where in the human respiratory system does the exchange of oxygen for co2 take place?
Alveoli
Cellular respiration takes place at the what?
Mitochondria
The structures in the human kidney that filter waste products out of the blood are called what?
Nephrons
The skin helps maintain body temperature when water is removed from its surface by the process of what?
Evaporation
In humans, locomotion is accomplished through the interaction of what?
Muscles and bones
Which of the following life functions is most closely associated with the ability of an organism to adapt to changes in its environment; ingestion, excretion, circulation, or regulation?
Regulation
The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus, cytoplasm, and dendrites is called the what?
Cyton
The part of the brain used to answer this question is called the what?
Cerebrum
Which of the following best describes an endocrine system response; fast and short duration, slow and widespread, often targeting several organs, fast and of long duration, slow and limited, always targeting only one organ?
slow and widespread, often targeting several organs
What is the endocrine gland known as the master gland?
Pituitary
Which of the following chemical substances does not have an effect on life functions in animal-like protists?
Hormones
Regulation in a hydra depends on its what?
Nerve Net
An earthworm takes in oxygen through its what?
Skin
If the spiracles of a grasshopper become clogged, the grasshopper has difficulty with the life function of what?
Respiration
During asexual reproduction, daughter cells are formed by what?
Mitosis
In mitosis, replication of the chromosomes takes place during what?
Interphase
Animal like protest and bacteria usually reproduce by what?
Binary fission
If a cell has a haploid number of 16, its diploid number of chromosomes is what?
32
Two cell divisions are characteristic of the process of what?
Meiosis
In the human male reproductive system, the urethra functions in what?
Excretion and reproduction
Zygote formation takes place in a part of the female reproductive system known as the what?
Fallopian tube
The menstrual cycle is controlled by the interaction of hormones produced by the what?
Pituitary gland and ovaries
What is the name of the series of cell divisions that results in the formation of an embryo?
Cleavage
Which structure is formed from a combination of tissue composed of the mother’s uterine wall and the developing fetus?
Placenta
Vegetative propagation is what?
The formation of a new plant from part of an already existing plant
When a stem is cut off a plant and attached to the stem of a plant that is rooted in the ground, the process is called what?
Grafting
The male gamete produced by a flowering plant is the what?
Pollen grain
Which of the following is characteristic of sexual reproduction in flowering plants?
Double fertilization
The epicotyls and hypocotyls are what?
The embryo of a seed
To reduce competition between a parent plant and germinating plants for scarce resources such as light, soil, and water, seeds must what?
Be dispersed
The basic hereditary factor that is inherited from one generation to the next is the what?
Gene
The characteristic, or version, of a trait that an organism has is called it’s what?
Phenotype
In pea plants, the allele for the tall characteristic of height is dominant over the allele for the short characteristic. Tall pea plants are crossed with short pea plants, resulting in 149 tall plants and 153 short plants. Based on these results, the genotype of the tall plant is what?
Heterozygous
Which of the following genetic crosses best illustrates Mendel’s Law of Segregation; TT x TT, tt x tt, Tt x Tt, or Tt x tt?
Tt x Tt
Which of the following genetic crosses can produce a phenotype ratio of 9:3:3:1; YyRr x YyRr, YYRR x YYRR, YYRR x yyrr, or yyrr x yrr?
YyRr x YyRr
When two pink Japanese four o’clock plants are crossed, offspring are produced in a ratio of what?
25% red, 50% pink, 25% white
In humans, the number of autosomes in a sperm cell is what?
22
Which cross can produce a child with blood type A?
IAIA x ii
Traits controlled by genes located on the X chromosomes are what?
Sex linked
A normal been seedling that has the ability to produce chlorophyll doesn’t when grown in soil lacking magnesium. This demonstrates what?
The influence of the environment on gene expression
Deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and thymine combing to form what?
Nucleotide
The replication of the DNA molecule is known as what?
Semiconservative replication
Indentify the two steps involved in protein synthesis.
Transcription and translation
Each set of three nitrogen bases on an mRNA molecule is called what?
Codon
A tRNA molecule has a structure that allows it to what?
Carry an amino acid on one end, while having an anticodon on the other end.
During protein synthesis, if one nitrogen base is replaced by another, the results are a what?
Gene mutation
Nondisjunction during meiosis can result in a gamete that is what?
N + 1
Huntington’s disease is caused by what?
? A defective dominant allele
The process by which genes from the chromosomes of one species are inserted into the chromosomes of another species is called what?
Genetic engineering
Which are of biology explains the change that occurs in a species with the passage of time?
Evolution
The remains of organisms that lived in the distant past are called what?
Fossils
Scientists use the radioactivity of certain elements and their half life to what?
Determine the age of a fossil
Structures that are similar in construction and evolutionary development but dissimilar in function are called what?
Homologous
According to most biologists today, hereditary variation is due to what?
Mutations
According to the Hardy-Weinberg Law, for the frequency of an allele to remain constant from generation to generation, all the following conditions must be met except what; mutations, large gene pool, no migration, or no natural selection?
Mutations
A point on earth north or south of the equator can be measured in degrees of what?
Latitude
An example of a population is; all the mice in a field, mice and owls living in a field, animals in a field and their surrounding environment, or animals in a field and their food?
all the mice in a field
A relationship between two organisms that live together, where at least one of the organism’s benefits from the association is called a what?
Symbiosis
The further down we move in a food chain from producers to final consumers, the what?
Less energy is available
Identify the two processes involved in the water cycle.
Evaporation and precipitation
The process by which one biotic community is replaced by another is known as what?
Ecological succession
A large geographical area characterized by specific abiotic factors and a climax community of plants and animals that are unique to an area is called what?
Biome
Which of the following factors places the greatest demand on the earth’s limited resources; population growth, disease, global warming, or forest fires?
Population growth
The tropical rain forest must be protected and conserved because of their what?
Biodiversity
Which of the following is not an alternative source of energy that can replace fossil fuels; hydrogen fuel, wind energy, solar energy, or natural gas?
Natural gas
The taking in of food by an organism is called what?
Ingestion
The sum total of all the life functions is known as what?
Metabolism
All the following are necessary for the survival of the organism except; homeostasis, metabolism, reproduction, or regulation?
Reproduction
The life functions of an ogranism work together t maintain stability and constant conditions within an organism. This concept is referred to as what?
Homeostasis
A general function of a transport system is to what?
Bring materials from the external environment into contact with all the cells of the organism
The change of digested food into the living matter of the cell is called what?
Assimilation
The process by which an organism obtains the energy it needs by releasing the chemical energy in nutrients is what?
Respiration
The cells of an organism are capable of chemically combining simple substances to form more complex substances. This process is called what?
Synthesis
Which of the following life functions allows an organism to respond to changes in its environment; transport, regulation, respiration, or synthesis?
Regulation
The removal of metabolic wastes from an organism is known as what?
Excretion
Which instrument is used to observe the structure of a virus?
Electron Microscope
Which tool is used to move a cell part from one cell to another?
Microdissection tools
Insects, earthworms, and other small organisms can best be studied using what?
A dissecting microscope
This microscope uses one convex lens.
Simple microscope
A student looking at his finger through a microscope sees a totally black field of view. The most probable explanation for this is what?
The students finger is too thick
The total magnification of a microscope using a 10X ocular and a 60X objective lens is what?
600X
Which part of the microscope regulates light?
Diaphragm
A student measures the length of a paramecium to be 100 micrometers under low power (100X Mag). He switches to high power (400X Mag) and measures the paramecium. What is the size of the paramecium under high power?
100 micrometers
How many millimeters is a cell that measures 675 micrometers?
.675 millimeters
The field of view of a microscope is 1000 micrometers. A student counts five cells of equal size going across the field of view. How long is each cell?
200 micrometers
All the following are concepts of cell theory except; the cell is the basic unit of structure in all living things, the cell is the basic unit of function in all living things, new cells arise only from previously existing cells, or all living things have chloroplasts?
all living things have chloroplasts
Which of the following best explains the concept of unity of life; metabolism, the cell theory, organ systems, or fluid mosaic model?
The cell theory
Which of the following represents the correct order from simplest to most complex: organism-organ systems-organs-tissues-cells, cells-tissues-organs-organ systems-organism, cells-organs-tissues-organ systems-organism, or organ systems-organism-organs-tissues-cells?
cells-tissues-organs-organ systems-organism
A student observed a cell under the microscope. The student identified the cell as an animal cell not a plant cell because of the presence of what?
Centrioles
Which of the following organelles can be seen only with the aid of an electron microscope: ribosomes, cell membrane, nucleus, or vacuoles?
Ribosomes
Which organelles are responsible for respiration and energy production?
Mitochondria
The structure in the cell that stores food is the what?
Vacuole
Which structure of the cell is capable of engulfing a large food particle?
Endocytotic vesicle or pinocytotic vesicle
What best illustrates the structure of the cell membrane?
Two layers of lipid with proteins spread throughout the layers and in between the layers
Proteins are needed by a cell for what?
Growth and repair
Semipermeability describes the ability of the cell membrane to what?
Control the movement of materials into and out of the cell
A cell with many small vacuoles is most probably what?
Animal cell
Which type of molecular transport requires energy?
Active transport
The movement of molecules from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration is characteristic of what?
Active transport
Water can enter a cell by the process of what?
Osmosis
Scientific classification is primarily based on what?
Structure and evolutionary development
The binomial system of classification was developed by who?
Linnaeus
The scientific name of an organism includes what?
Genus and specific epithet
The greatest similarity in structure occurs between members belonging to the same what?
Species
Organisms capable of mating and producing fertile offspring belong to the same what?
Species
The gray wolf is classified as canis lupus and the red wolf as canis rufus. These two animals belong to what?
The same genus but different species
Acer rubrum is the scientific name of the red maple. This organism belongs to what species?
Acer rubrum
Which of the following represents the correct order of classification from larges grouping to smallest grouping: species-genus-phylum-class, phylum-class-genus-species, genus-species-phylum-class, or phylum-genus-class-species?
phylum-class-genus-species
According to the binomial naming system of classification, the organism named acetabularia mediterranea is most closely related to what?
Acetabularia crenulta
All of the following are domains except: archaea, bacteria, eukarya, Protista?
Protista
Which domain contains primitive cells that are lacking a nuclear membrane?
Bacteria
Eukaryotic organisms
have a nuclear membrane
Paramecia, amoeba, and trypanosoma are classified as what?
Animal like protista
Although euglena has a tail, it is classified as a plant-like protest because it has the ability to perform what?
Photosynthesis
The paramecium is a one celled, eukaryotic, heterotrophic organism with cilia. This organism is best classified in the kingdom of what?
Protista
All of the following are characteristics of fungi except: green plants, eukaryotic, heterotrophic, or decomposers of dead plants?
Green plants
Which two phyla can be found in the plant kingdom?
Coniferophyta and anthophyta
Organisms that are capable of manufacturing their own food are found in the group of what?
Anthophyta
Which of the following are cnidaria: slime molds and green algae, amoeba and paramecia, hydra and jellyfish, or ferns and grasses?
hydra and jellyfish
All of the following are annelids except: leech, earthworm, planarian, or sandworm?
Planarian
Select the pair of organisms that have an exoskeleton: planarian and leech, hydra and coral, starfish and sea urchin, or insect and spider?
Insect and spider
The octopus is classified as a mollusk because it has what?
A soft body and a hard interior shell
A starfish is classified in the phylum of what?
Echinodermata
Of the following, the closest relative to the whale is the: shark, tuna, eel, or cat?
cat
Animals that have backbones can be found in the phylum of what?
Chordata
Chordates all have what?
A dorsal nerve cord
rganisms capable of metamorphosis are found in the class of what?
Amphibia
An organism that has hair, mammary glands and feeds milk to its young can be classified as a what?
Mammal
Why is a virus not classified into a kingdom?
Most biologists do not consider them living things
A great number of natural organic molecules can exist because carbon atoms are what?
Form four covalent bonds
A structural formula indicates the what?
Number, kind and arrangement of atoms in a molecule
Fructose and pentose are examples of a class of organic compounds known as what?
Carbohydrates
Which of the following correctly represents the formula for a monosaccharide?
C5H10O5
A very large polysaccharide can also be called a what?
Starch
All of the following are examples of polysaccharides except: glycogen, cellulose, starch, or maltase?
Maltase
The breakdown of a large molecule into two or more smaller molecules by adding water is known as what?
Hydrolysis
Which element is found in a protein, but is not found in a carbohydrate of lipid?
Nitrogen
Amino acids are required in a person’s diet for the synthesis of what?
Proteins
Proteins are needed for all the following except: energy, growth, repair, or reproduction?
Energy
Which of the following can release the greatest amount of energy: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, or sugars?
Lipids
The cellular site for protein synthesis is the what?
Ribosomes
The element nitrogen can be found in what?
Amino acids and proteins
The release of energy from glucose takes place at the what?
Mitochondria
Which organelle can store enzymes for the hydrolysis of starch?
Lysosomes
The hydrolysis of one lipid molecule results in the formation of what?
One glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules
The enzyme protease acts on what?
Amino acids
Which of the following substances are proteins: amino acids, fatty acids, enzymes, or nitric acid?
Enzymes
Identify the two groups that are found in all amino acids: an amino group and a carboxyl group, an amino group and a hydroxyl group, a carboxyl group and a hydroxyl group, a hydroxyl group and a methyl group?
An amino acid group and a carboxyl group
The substance that an enzyme acts on is known as the what?
Substrate
Which of the following substances can be used to speed up a chemical reaction: hemoglobin, glycerol, amylase, or sodium hydroxide?
Amylase
Which of the following pH values indicates the strongest base: 1, 6, 7, or 14?
14
All of the following are acids except: HCI, HF, H2SO4,or HOH?
HOH
A solution having a large number of hydrogen ions is what?
Acidic
The reactants that take part in the process of photosynthesis are what?
CO2 + H2O
Photosynthesis takes place in organelles called what?
Chloroplasts
Which wavelength of light is the least valuable for photosynthesis?
Green
What is the name of the process involved in the movement of water through the stomates of plants?
Transpiration
Which molecule produces oxygen that is formed during photosynthesis?
H2O
Which of the following takes place during the light reactions of photosynthesis: hydrogen atoms are combined with carbon dioxide, sugar molecules are combined to form starch, sugar is split into carbon and water, water is split to form hydrogen and oxygen?
water is split to form hydrogen and oxygen
The hydrogen atoms that a plant uses during the dark reactions of photosynthesis are obtained from what?
Water
Which molecule functions as a coenzyme capable of transporting hydrogen and electrons?
NADP
Which of the following molecules has no effect on the photosynthesis process?
Nitrogen
Which of the following organic molecules is formed during the process of photosynthesis: Oxygen, PGAL, CO2, or chlorophyll?
PGAL
In a dicot (or woody) stem, xylem and phloem cells are separated from each other by the what?
Cambium
Meristematic cells can be found in all the following parts of a plant except: leaves, dicot roots, dicot stems, or monocot roots?
Leaves
The lenticels found in many plant stems function in the life process of what?
Respiration
Which vascular tissue is responsible for the upward transport of materials in the stem of a plant?
Xylem
Which cells in the stem are responsible for cell division and reproduction resulting in the increased diameter of the stem?
Cambium
Where are the vascular bundles of nonwoody plants found?
Spread throughout the stem
The destruction of xylem cells in a plant negatively affects the plant’s ability to transport what?
Water and minerals up to the leaves
Girdling a tree results in what?
A break in the continuity of the vascular bundles, which results in the death of the tree
Root hair cells are specialized for what?
Increase water absorption
Identify the cells in the root that have the ability to store materials produced in the leaf
Cortex
Which cells in the root are specialized for carrying out the life function of reproduction?
Meristem
Which of the following is not a function of the root: absorption of oxygen and carbon dioxide, absorption of water and minerals, storage of sugar and starch, or anchorage and support?
Absorption of oxygen and carbon dioxide
From the following choices, select the plant structure that is found in all roots, stems, and leaves: guard cells, vascular tissue, lenticels, spongy mesophyll cells?
Vascular tissue
All the following are characteristics of green plants except: respiration, transpiration, transport, or heterotrophic nutrition?
Heterotrophic nutrition
Two end products of photosynthesis are what?
C6H12O6 + O2
The chemical reaction that breaks down food during digestion is what?
Hydrolysis
Chemical digestion of food becomes more efficient when mechanical digestion does what?
Increases the surface area of the food
Which of the following represents the correct order of digestion in humans: mouth-stomach-esophagus-small intestines, mouth-esophagus-stomach-large intestines, mouth-stomach-esophagus-small intestines, or mouth-esophagus-stomach-small intestines?
mouth-esophagus-stomach-small intestines
Which of the following fluids is produced by the liver: hydrochloric acid, bicarbonate, bile, or gastric juice?
Bile
Where does the reabsorption of water into the blood take place?
Large intestines
Select the chamber of the heart that pumps blood into the lungs: right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, or left ventricle?
Right ventricle
Identify the chamber of the heart that receives blood from the lower part of the body.
Right atrium
Which of the following represents the correct order of circulation in humans: right atrium-right ventricle-pulmonary arteries-lungs-pulmonary veins-left atrium-left ventricle, right atrium-right ventricle-pulmonary veins-lungs-pulmonary arteries-left atrium-left ventricle, left atrium-left ventricle-pulmonary veins-lungs-pulmonary arteries-right atrium-right ventricle, or right atrium-left atrium-pulmonary veins-lungs-pulmonary arteries-right ventricle-left ventricle?
right atrium-right ventricle-pulmonary arteries-lungs-pulmonary veins-left atrium-left ventricle
Select the part of the blood that carries the iron containing hemoglobin molecule: plasma, red blood cell, white blood cell, or platelet?
red blood cell
Which two blood components are most closely associated with the clotting process: white blood cells and antibiotics, platelets and plasma, antibodies and antigens, or platelets and fibrinogen?
platelets and fibrinogen
Identify the proteins that can destroy bacteria.
Antibodies
Which part of the blood carries the end products of digestion?
Plasma
What happens to the diaphragm when humans inhale?
The diaphragm moves down
As the level of carbon dioxide in the blood increases, a person’s rate of respiration does what?
Increases
Where in the human respiratory system does an exchange of gasses take place?
Alveoli
Which of the following biological processes is the reverse of respiration: dehydration synthesis, photosynthesis, hydrolysis, or peristalsis?
photosynthesis
How many ATP molecules are gained from the complete breakdown of glucose during cellular respiration?
36
Which of the following statements best describes cellular respiration: cellular respiration converts light energy into chemical energy, cellular respiration converts chemical energy stored in the glucose molecule into molecules of ATP, cellular respiration produces glucose from water and carbon dioxide, or cellular respiration converts ATP into chemical bond energy stored in the glucose molecule?
cellular respiration converts chemical energy stored in the glucose molecule into molecules of ATP
Which of the following is not an organ of excretion: small intestines, liver, skin, lungs?
small intestines
Which organ contains nephrons?
Kidneys
Sweating cools the body as a result of the physical process of what?
Evaporation
Which of the following best describes sweat glands: they are exocrine glands, they are endocrine glands, they produce hormones, or they are ductless glands?
they are exocrine glands
What structure connects two bones together?
Ligaments
Which of the following is an example of an effector: tongue, kidneys, salivary glands, or brain?
salivary glands
In humans, which gland functions as both an exocrine and endocrine gland?
Pancreas
When a high concentration of sugar is in the blood, the body produces what?
Insulin
Select the hormone that regulates the rate of metabolism in body cells: thyroxin, adrenalin, parathormone, or estrogen?
thyroxin
An amoeba can engulf a small organism by the process of what?
Phagocytosis
A tube within a tube body organization is found in what?
Earthworms and humans
Which of the following organisms has only intracellular digestion: humans, grasshoppers, earthworms, or animal-like protists?
Animal-like protists
Select the organism that does not have a one-way digestive system: hydra, earthworm, grasshopper, or human?
Hydra
Where does mechanical digestion in earthworms and grasshoppers take place?
Gizzard
The transport of materials within animal like protest takes place by a process called what?
Movement of cytoplasm
Water enters the amoeba from its surrounding environment by what?
Osmosis
Which of the following best describes transport in animal like protists: a system of tracheal tubes, an open circulatory system, a closed circulatory system, or osmosis, diffusion, movement of the cytoplasm?
osmosis, diffusion, movement of the cytoplasm
In a hydra, digested food found in the digestive cavity enters the endoderm cells by the process of what?
Diffusion
What best describes transport in earthworms?
A closed circulatory system with five aortic arches that pump blood
What substance is never found in the blood of a grasshopper?
Oxygen
What process does animal like protists excrete water into their surrounding environment?
Active transport
Insects use structures called spiracles to do what?
Breathe
Which organism has ammonia as its main nitrogenous waste?
Hydra
Which organism depends on Malpighian tubules for excretion?
Grasshopper
What organism has paired nephridia for the removal of nitrogenous wastes?
Earthworm
What organism produces uric acid as a waste to conserve water?
Grasshopper
Which of following organisms does not depend on neurotransmitters for nervous system control: animal like protists, earthworm, grasshopper, or human?
Animal like protists
Which organism has only one ventral nerve cord?
Earthworm
Which of the following organisms does not depend on hormones for endocrine system control: animal like protists, earthworm, grasshopper, or human?
animal like protists
Which of the following shows the correct order of organisms, with respect to increasing complexity in the handling of life functions: human-grasshopper-earthworm-hydra-animal like protists, hydra-animal like protists-earthworm-grasshopper-human, animal like protists-hydra-grasshopper-earthworm-human, or animal like protists-hydra-earthworm-grasshopper-human?
animal like protists-hydra-earthworm-grasshopper-human