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47 Cards in this Set

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Proteins are composed of one or more
polypeptide chains
One partner is a
hydrogen atom
activation energy
minimum amount of energy required to trigger a chemical reaction (Concept 5.5)
catalyst
agent that speeds up chemical reactions (Concept 5.5)
enzyme
specialized protein that catalyzes the chemical reactions of a cell
substrate:
specific reactant acted on by an enzyme (Concept 5.5)
active site
region of an enzyme into which a particular substrate fits
To start a chemical reaction, it is first necessary to
weaken chemical bonds in the reactant molecules. This activation process requires that the molecules absorb energy
Hotter molecules may collide with enough energy to
weaken bonds
cooler molecules collide with
less energy
Most enzymes have names that end in
ase
protein
polymer constructed from a set of 20 amino acid monomers (Concept 5.4)
amino acid
monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups (Concept 5.4)
polypeptide
chain of linked amino acids
denaturation
loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor
Proteins with less-visible functions include proteins that
circulate in the blood and defend the body from harmful microorganisms, and others that act as signals, conveying messages from one cell to another.
what are the same in all amino acids
Three of the central carbon's partners
Organic molecule
carbon-based molecule
inorganic molecule
non-carbon-based molecule
hydrocarbon
organic molecule composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms
functional group
group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules
hydrophilic
attracts water molecules
monomer
small molecular unit that is the building block of a larger molecule
polymer
long chain of small molecular units (monomers)
Life's large molecules are classified into four main categories
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
dehydration reaction
Each time a monomer is added to a chain, a water molecule is released
hydrolysis reaction
Cells break bonds between monomers by adding water to them, the reverse of dehydration
what is removed to make a polymer
water
what is added to break a polymer
water
carbohydrate
organic compound made of sugar molecules
monosaccharide
sugar containing one sugar unit
disaccharide
sugar containing two monosaccharides
polysaccharide
long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers
starch
polysaccharide in plant cells that consists entirely of glucose monomers
glycogen
polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers
cellulose:
polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls
sugar contains what element
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio of 1 carbon: 2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen.
what are examples of monosaccharides
Glucose, fructose, and galactose
The most common disaccharide is
sucrose
sucrose can be broken down into
glucose and fructose
Animal cells do not contain
starch
When the body needs energy, it breaks down these glycogen granules, releasing
glucose
Almost all carbohydrates are
hydrophilic
monosaccharides and disaccharides dissolve readily in water, forming
sugary solutions
at room temp saturated fat is
solid
At room temp unsaturated fats are
liquid
functions of steriods
Some steroids circulate in your body as chemical signals. The steroids estrogen, a female sex hormone, and testosterone, a male sex hormone, function in this way (Figure 5-10).