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71 Cards in this Set

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amino acid
Organic compund with an H atom, amino group, acid group, and R group, all covalently bonded to a carbon atom. Subunit of polypeptide chains.
atom
Smallest unit of an element that retains the element's properties-n protons surrounded by n electrons
isotope
For each element, atoms that vary in neutron number.
give the correct chemical symbol for calcium
Ca
give the correct chemical symbol for carbon
C
give the correct chemical symbol for chlorine
Cl
give the correct chemical symbol for hydrogen
H
give the correct chemical symbol for iron
Fe
give the correct chemical symbol for lead
Pb
give the correct chemical symbol for magnesium
Mg
give the correct chemical symbol for nitrogen
N
give the correct chemical symbol for oxygen
O
give the correct chemical symbol for phosphorus
P
give the correct chemical symbol for potassium
K
give the correct chemical symbol for sodium
Na
give the correct chemical symbol for sulfur
S
chemical bond
union between electron structures of atoms
molecule
two or more atoms joined together
covalent bond
when different atoms share a pair of electrons
ionic bond
an association of two ions with opposing charges
State the difference between an acid and a base.
When an acid dissolves in water, it donates protons (H+) to the water solution. When a base dissolves in water, it accepts protons (H+). acidic solutions. Acidic solutions release protons, Basic solutions take up or combine with protons.
State the difference between an atom and a molecule
A molecule is two or more atoms that are bonded together.
State the difference between energy and matter.
Energy is having the ability to change, while matter is something with mass (resistance to having its motion changed) and volume (takes up space).
Ion
An atom with a different number of protons than electrons
State the difference between an atom and an ion
An atom has the same number of protons and electrons. An ion has a different number of protons and electrons (depending on which there is more of, it is + or - charged)
State the difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond.
An ionic bond is two ions held together by their opposite charges. A covalent bond is formed when two atoms share two electrons.
State the difference between an element and a compound.
A compound is a molecule made up of two or more different elements always in the same proportions. A molecule is made up of two or more atoms bonded together.
State the difference betweed a molecule and a crystal.
A molecule is two or more atoms bonded together with a covalent bond. A crystal is two or more ions that are bonded with an ionic bond. Crystals form in simpler shapes and do not form living things. Molecule form in more complex shapes and can form living things.
hydrogen bond
A weak attraction between an electronegative atom (e.g. an oxygen or nitrogen atom taking part in a polar covalent bond) and a hydrogen atom taking part in a second polar covalent bond.
hydrophilic
attracted to water
hydrophobic
repelled by water
crystal
2 or more ions held together by an ionic bond
organic
contains the element carbon and at least one hydrogen atom
functional groups
Particular atoms or clusters of atoms covalently bonded to carbon.
Why is water uniquely suited to serve as a key component in living things?
Because life depends on the cohesion of water-the ability to resist rupturing when stretched. This allows water to move through small openings and provide nutrients to organisms.
What pH does something have to be in order to be an acid, base or a neutral?
Acid-below 7
Base-above 7
Neutral-exactly 7
Given the atomic number of an atom, state the # of protons in its nucleus, # of electrons in each shell, and the # of covalent bonds it is likely to form.
The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus. It is also the number of electrons orbiting it. The first shell will have two, the second shell will have eight, and the third shell will have eight or eighteen. Generally, ionic bonds forn with identical ions, but covalent bonds form with larger atoms and smaller atoms.
amino group
-NH2 (non-ionized) or -NH3+ (ionized). In amino acids and certain nucleotide bases, water soluble, acidic
hydroxyl group
-OH, is in alcohols, is water soluble.
carboxyl group
-COOH (non-ionized) or -COO- (ionized). In amino acids, fatty acids, water soluble. Highly polar and acts as an acid (releases H+)
monosaccharide
The simplest carbohydrate with one sugar monomer. These are commonly known as sugars, and can form compounds.
polysaccharide(s)
The "complex" carbohydrate, branched chains of many sugar monomers of any type.
anabolism
The phase of metabolism in which simple substances are synthesized into the complex materials of living tissue.
atomic theory
The theory that states that an atom is comprised of a heavier nucleus with protons and neutrons and a larger electron cloud of orbiting electrons.
biochemistry
The study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms OR the chemical composition of a particular living system or biological substance.
catabolism
The metabolic breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones, often resulting in a release of energy.
catalyst
A substance, usually used in small amounts relative to the reactants, that modifies and increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed in the process.
dalton
another name for an atomic mass unit (1 proton or neutron)
deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that consists of two long chains of nucleotides twisted together into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine; it carries the cell's genetic information and hereditary characteristics via its nucleotides and their sequence and is capable of self-replication and RNA synthesis.
disaccharide
Sugars that are made of two monosaccharides.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that consists of two long chains of nucleotides twisted together into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine; it carries the cell's genetic information and hereditary characteristics via its nucleotides and their sequence and is capable of self-replication and RNA synthesis.
element
Smallest form of matter that occupies space, has mass, and cannot be broken apart into a different form of matter by ordinary physical or chemical means.
compound
Molecule made of two or more elements in unvarying proportions.
inorganic
Of or relating to compounds not containing hydrocarbon groups
matter
something that has mass (resistance to having its motion changed) and volume (takes up space)
macromolecule
A very large molecule, such as a polymer or protein, consisting of many smaller structural units linked together. Also called a supermolecule.
polypeptide (chain)
peptide bonds joined with three or more amino acids.
gene
a unit of information about a heritable trait.
polar
of opposite but equal charges
cellulose
complex carbohydrate that is made up of glucose units, makes up most of a plant's tissue and fiber.
metabolism
The chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life. In metabolism some substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes while other substances, necessary for life, are synthesized.
nucleotide
an organic compund that contains a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), at least one phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.
nucleic acid
any of various acids (as an RNA or a DNA) composed of nucleotide chains
nucleotide
Any of various compounds consisting of a nucleoside combined with a phosphate group and forming the basic constituent of DNA and RNA.
phospholipid
has glycerol backbone, two fatty acid tails, and a hydrophilic "head" with a phosphate group and anotehr polar group. They are the main materials of cell membranes.
glycoprotein
a protein with glycogen attached to it.
lipoprotein
a protein with a lipid attached to it.
metabolism
All controlled, enzyme-mediated chemical reactions (the enzyme is a catalyst).
The two types are: anabolism and catabolism.
ion
An atom which has a different number of protons and electrons. (can be positively or negatively charged).
glycogen
A polysasccharide (C6 H10 05 or any multiple) which is the main form of carb storage-readily converted to glucose as needed.
glycerol
C3 H8 O3 - A syrupy yellow colored liquid obtained from fats and oils.