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207 Cards in this Set

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Taxonomy
=systematics; field of bio that deals with identifying, naming, and classifying
Nomenclature
giving groups of organisms names
Classification
a way of organizing and retrieving information about species; arrangement of organisms into groups
Phylogenetic relationships
evolutionary relationships that classification systems are based
CLADISTICS
objective method of using evolutionary branching points to determine genealogical/phylogenetic relationships among organisms
CLADOGRAM
=evolutionary tree=phylogeny=hypothesis of evolution
MONOPHYLETIC GROUP
=one that contains a ca and all of its descendents=clade=only groups recognized in classifying organisms.
WHAT DEFINES LIFE?
DNA, ability to reproduce
SHARED DERIVED CHARACTER
cladograms are based on, not shared ancestral characters
OUTGROUP
used to determine ancestral vs. derived characters; organism with the fewest derived traits; any deviation from an outgroup is a derived trait (branching)
INGROUP
a relative of the group under study
PARSIMONY
also used in constructing cladograms (simplest is usually best explanation)
HOMOPLASY/HOMOPLASIOUS CHARACTERS
misleading characters, show reversals or parallelisms
EVOLUTIONARY PARALLELISMS
similar, but evolved different ways; example are wings
HIERARCHICAL RANK
convert cladogram into a set of names; kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
CARL LINNAEUS
concept of 2 part Latin name=binomial=species name; genus + specific epithet, in italics or underlined, capitilized genus
HETEROTROPHIC
organism unable to make its own organic compounds; feeds on others, ie protozoans
AUTOTROPHIC
organism that makes its own food with an environmental energy source and CO2 as its carbon source
DIPLOMONAD
multi-flagella, 2 nuclei, ie Giardia lamblia
GIARDIASIS
caused by Giardia lamblia diplomonad protist; causes intestinal problems
PARABASALID
=trichomonads, multi-flagella, 1 nucleus, protist; ie Trichomonas vaginalis (STD)
EUGLENOZOA
flagellated, single-celled protist, ie euglenoids & kinetoplastids
EUGLENOIDS
autotrophic, contractile vacoule, chloroplasts, ie euglena
CONTRACTILE VACOULE
controls water like a bilge pump
SECONDARY ENDOSYMBIOSIS OF CHLOROPLASTS
chloroplasts of euglenoids and green algae, lives and reproduces inside other's body
KINETOPLASTIDS
heterotrophic, free-living & parasitic, single-large mitochondrion associated with kinetoplast, ie African sleeping sickness & Chagas disease
KINETOPLAST
unique organelle with a large network of DNA
AFRICAN SLEEPING SICKNESS
caused by kinetoplastid, Trypanosoma brucei, vector=tsetse fly, damages CNS
CHAGAS DISEASE
caused by kinetoplastid, T. cruzi, vector=kissing bug, causes cardiac, gastro., or neuro. damage
AMOEBOID PROTOZOANS
heterotrophs (no chloro), lost flagella, pseudopodia
PSEUDOPODIA
"false feet", cytoplasmic extensions of the cell, food capture
RHIZOPODS
"root-like feet" ie amoebas & foramiferans
AMOEBAS
found in soil, fresh & salt water, naked cells
AMOEBIC DYSENTERY
caused by Entamoeba histolytica, contaminates drinking water and food; rhizopods-amoeba
FORAMINIFERANS
sea floor, pseudopodia; rhizopods
ACTINOPODS
"ray feet", radiolarians & heliozoans, silica shell, axopodia
AXOPODIA
used for feeding on actinopods
SLIME MOLDS
not true fungi, similar to amoebas (use pseudopodia), heterotrophic, complex life cycles
PLASMODIAL SLIME MOLDS
does NOT photosynthesize, plasmodium, moves across substrate, cellulose, dry enviro=sex part of cycle
PLASMODIUM
diploid feeding stage of life cycle=single mass of cytoplasm with many nuclei (mitosis without cytokinesis)
CELLULAR SLIME MOLDS
free single cells=feeding stage, cellulose, ie Dictyostelium
PSEUDOPLASMODIUM
food scarce, cells secrete hormone that fuses cells together in slug-like mass; differs from plasmodia bc cells keep identiy
ALVEOLATES
usually single-cell, heterotrophic & autotrophic (secondary symbiosis), alveoli
ALVEOLI
little sacs in outer layer of cell
CILIATES
alveolate, complex single-cell, heterotrophic, cilia, contractile vacoule, 2 types of nuclei: micro & macro, trichocysts, ie Didinium
CILIA
ciliates covered in for movement and feeding
MICRONUCLEUS
of ciliate, mitosis, sexual reproduction
MACRONUCLEUS
of ciliate, jumble of DNA, asexual reproduction
TRICHOCYSTS
harpoon-like structures for feeding
SPOROZOANS
=apicomplexans, alveolates, parasites w/ spore-like infective stage of life cycle, complex life cycyle requiring 2 or more hosts, reduced endosymboint plastid(secondary endosymbiosis), ie Plasmodium & Toxoplasma
MALARIA
Plasmodium, sporozoan, sporozoites transmitted by female mosquito travel to liver, multiply
TOXOPLASMOSIS
Toxoplasma, sporozoan, uses cats as final host, cysts spread from feces to food, cause flu-like symptoms, dangerous to unborn babies
DINOFLAGELLATES
alveolate, mainly autotrophic, free-living, single-celled, provide foundation of marine ecosystems, unusual chromosomes(lack histone proteins), chloroplasts from secondary symbiosis, cellulose plates (2 perpendicular grooves w/ flagells), some bioluminescent
SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP
individuals of one species live near, in or on individuals of a different species for at least part of life cycle
ALGAL BLOOM
caused by increase in nutrient levels, a few of these dinoflagellate species produce toxins that kill fish; ie Red Tide
RED TIDE
example of an algal bloom caused by dinogflagellate; Pfiesteria piscidia, heterotrophic, 24 stages
STRAMENOPILES
heterotrophic & autotrophic, flagellated stage of life cycle, 2 flagella (one smooth & one "hairy"); ie Yellow-brown "plants" & Oomycetes
YELLOW-BROWN "PLANTS"
Yellow-brown "plants", stramenopile, autotrophic, cellulose walls, includes diatoms, golden algae, coccolithophores=chrysophytes, and brown algae=phaeophytes
CHRYSOPHYTES
=coccolithophores (chrysos=
Greek for golden), Yellow-brown "plant", stramenopiles, single-celled with CACO3 plates
PHAEOPHYTES
Brown algae, Yellow-brown "plant," stramenopiles, multi-cell "seaweeds", complex body, cellulose walls, energy storage,
CHLOROPHYLL A
absorbs red and blue-to-violet wavelengths, ie red algae
CHLOROPHYLL C
brown algae contains
DIATOMS
single-celled, w/ 2 silica "shells", type of yellow-brown "plant", Stramenopile
GOLDEN ALGAE
single-celled w/ cellulose walls, type of yellow-brown "plant", Stramenopile
LAMINARIAN & MANNITOL
not starch, energy storage in brown algae
OOMYCETES
"egg fungus", Stramenopile, water molds, downy mildew, white rust, not true fungi, heterotrophic-saprophytes & parasites, some unicellular, others filaments w/ many nuclei, ie water mold & mildew
SAPROPHYTES
get nutrition from dead stuff, ie some oomycetes
IRISH POTATO FAMINE
caused by oomycete mildew: Phytophthora infestans
RED ALGAE
lack flagella, autotrophs w/ chloroplasts from cyanobacteria, mainly marine, mostly multi-cell, cell walls=cellulose, no centrioles, energy storage, sister to green plants, ie Agar, Porphyra
PHYCOERYTHRIN
a phycobilin, type of accessory pigment, abundant in Red Algae and in cyanobacteria
FLORIDEAN STARCH
energy storage for Red Algae
AGAR
from several different red algae species, extract of slimy wall material, used in foods, cosmetics DNA gels, and bacterial cultures
NORI
sushi algae, Porphyra, used in making sushi
CHLOROPHYTES
green algae, sister to streptophytes, starch, chloroplast, cellulose cell wall, gametes, single-cell
STARCH
energy storage for chlorophytes
CHLOROPHYLL b
chlorophytes have a & b; absorb blue & red-orange wavelength
ANTERIOR WHIPLASH
chlorophytes have gametes with 2 anterior whiplash, on the front of body
PHRAGMOPLAST
shared derived characters of Streptophytes; cell division of phragmoplast-spindle apparatus perpendicular to phragmoplast
OOGAMY
streptophytes have differentiable egg and sperm cells
PLASMODESMATA
=cytoplasmic channels between cells; complex multicell. body w/ parenchyma tissue; shared derived character of streptophytes
CHAROPHYTES
first to possess parenchyma tissue, alternation of generations, gametophyte only present
ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS
charophytes possess characteristic life cycle of plants; all green plants go thru this spore-producting & gamete-producing stage during life
GAMETOPHYTE
haploid gamete-producing body that forms during plant life cycles; less dependent on water=smaller gametophyte generation
SPOROPHYTE
vegetative body that produces spore-bearing structures; grows by mitotic cell divisions from a plant zygote
EMBRYOPHYTES
"land plants"-includes "bryophytes" & tracheophytes; make move to land since water has very limited amount of light and CO2
SPOROPOLLENIN
adaptation to living on land; spores w/ sporopollenin wall-specialized wall that resists drying out and decay
FLAVENOIDS
adaptation to living on land; phenolic compounds for uv protection
CUTICLE
adaptation to living on land; adaptation to land; prevents desiccation, coats entire plant body, restricts water loss, but also restricts CO2
ARCHEGONIA & ANTHRIDIA
adaptation to land; multicell gamete-producing structures (protects sperm & egg)
EMBRYO
adaptation to land; young plant, zygote divides much by mitosis to produce embryo; retained/protected inside gametophyte while it grows into a sporophyte
APICAL CELL GROWTH
growth(mitosis) only at the tips of plant(specialized region=meristem)
BRYOPHYTES
embryophyte-streptophyte, includes hornworts+liverworts+mosses; nonvascular land plant requiring free water for fertilization
LIVERWORTS
bryophyte, thallose & leafy, Thallus, gametophyte equal apical growth & unicell rhizoids, some porous, sporophyte-stalked body grows by cell elongation (not apical growth)
THALLUS
on liverworts; plant body that lacks true leaves, stems, and roots
RHIZOIDS
root-like structure; no xylem or phloem
PORES
simple holes; in some thallose plants=some liverworts
CAPSULE
sporangium (where spores are produced)
MOSSES
erect, leafy dominant gametophyte, gametophyte possesses hydroids (water-conducting) ad leptoids(food-conducting) cell analagous to traheophytes, sporophyte elongates by apical growth(still unbranched)
OPERCULUM
cap in mosses for apical growth
PERISTOME TEETH
for dispersal; respond to humidity in mosses
STOMATA
pores for gas exchange and water retention
GUARD CELLS
regulate water and gas exchange thru stomata
LIGNIN
embedded in cell walls for support of cell; adaptation for land due to gravity
TRACHEOPHYTES
includes lycophytes, ferns, & seed plants
APICAL MERISTEMS
branched plant body; mass of dividing cells at root tips and shoot tips; produce hormones
VASCULAR TISSUE
conducting tissue=xylem & phloem; lignin 2nd cell wall of xylem; terrestrial environment is heterogeneous
XYLEM
vascular plants, complex tissue that conducts water and solutes thru pipelines of interconnected walls of cells, which are dead at maturity (lignin); food to above-ground parts
PHLOEM
vascular tissue; live cells(sieve tubes) interconnect as conducting tubes for sugars and other solutes; companion cells help load solutes into the tubes; food to below-ground parts
CELL TYPES
parenchyma, sclerenchyma, & collenchyma
TISSUES
simple tissues & complex tissues
TISSUE SYSTEMS
ground tissue system, vascular tissue system, & dermal tissue system
ORGANS
leaves, stems, roots
PARENCHYMA
simple tissue that makes up the bulk of a plant; has roles in photosynthesis, storage, transport, secretion, other tasks; usually with primary cw only
SCLERENCHYMA
simple tissue that supports mature plant parts and commonly protects seeds. Most of its cells have thick, lignin-impregnated walls; primary & secondary cw; function in support and water conduction
COLLENCHYMA
simple tissue that imparts flexible support during primary growth, as in lenthening stems; ie celery
SIMPLE TISSUE
one cell type; parenchyma, sclerenchyma, and collenchyma
COMPLEX TISSUE
several cell types
XYLEM
sclerenchyma(water conduction & support) + parenchyma(storage & transport); complex tissue; thick lignified 2nd walls; tracheid; vessel member; transpiration
TRACHEID
=primary water-conducting cell for many tracheophytes; cells elongate, slender, w/ pores for water conduction
VESSEL MEMBER
=more advanced type of water-conducting cell w/ holes in their end walls(perforation plates) found in flowering plants
PERFORATION PLATES
end of wall on vessel member; permits water and air bubbles to flow
COHESION-TENSION THEORY
collective cohesive strength of hydrogen bonds pull up water molecules thru xylem in response to transpiration from leaves
TRANSPIRATION
=evaporation of water from leaves= driving force that pulls water up thru plant, by osmosis
PHLOEM
sclerenchyma(support) + parenchyma(nutrient transport); complex tissue; conduting cells possess thin walls almost dead at maturity; sieve cells, sieve tube members
SIEVE CELL
=primary sucrose-conducting cell for many plant groups; cells elongate, slender, w/ pores for sucrose conduction
SIEVE TUBE MEMBER
=more advanced type of sucrose-conducting cells w/ plates in their end walls found in flowering plants
COMPANION CELLS
associated w/ sieve tube member's and function in loading & unloading sucrose to and from stm's; have nucleus are alive & function as controllers
PRESSURE FLOW THEORY
organic compounds flow thru phloem in response to pressure and concentration gradients b/w sources(leaves) & sinks(growing parts where they are being used or stored)
EPIDERMIS
parenchyma; stomata; outermost layer
GROUND TISSUE SYSTEM
usually composed of simple tissues that function in metabolism &/or storage
VASCULAR TISSUE SYSTEM
composed of complex tissues that function in water and nutrient conduction
DERMAL TISSUE SYSTEM
composed of complex tissues that cover/protect plant surfaces
PRIMARY MERISTEM
=apical meristem, all vascular plants grow in height by this-primary growth; shoot tip, root tip, & dermal, vascular, & ground systems.
SECONDARY MERISTEM
many plants can grow in girth(width) via a lateral(2nd) meristem; vascular cambium & cork cambium
VASCULAR CAMBIUM
secondary meristem that produces 2nd xylem(wood)+2nd phloem
CORK CAMBIUM
2nd meristem that produces periderm (bark); usually present in stems but sometimes roots too
LEAVES
usually primary photosynthetic organs in plant; external structre=blade+petiole; internal structure=dts-stomata(gas exchange/transpiration), gts-mesophyll(photosynthetic tissue-parenchyma), vts-veins(xylem & phloem)
BLADE
the main photosynthesis portion of leaf
PETIOLE
part of leaf, stalk attaching blade to stem
SIMPLE LEAF
one leaf
COMPOUND LEAF
many blades/leaflets
VEINS
vascular bundles of xylem + phloem
STEM
usually primary supporting & conducting organ of a plant; apical meristem: dts-epidermis, vts-vascular bundles of 1 xylem + phloem, gts-cortex + pith; lateral meristem: dts-cork cambium, vts-vascular cambium, gts-cortex + pith
CORTEX
a rindlike layer; ground tissue; supports parts and stores food
PITH
of most dicot stems, ground tissue inside of ring of vascular bundles; apical=usually parenchyma, lateral=generally lost as plant ages
VASCULAR BUNDLES
array of primary xylem & phloem in multistranded, sheathed cords that thread lengthwise in the ground tissue system
ROOTS
usually primary water-absorbing organs of a plant; external: root cap & root hairs; internal: dts-epidermis w/ root hairs, vts-cylinder of 1 xylem + phloem(can develop wood), gts-cortx + pith(monocots only), endodermis
ROOT HAIRS
elongate epidermal cells that function in absorbing water from soil(often associated w/ fungal symbionts)
ROOT CAP
protective sheath for growing root tip (apical meristem)
ENDODERMIS
filtering layer inside roots that controls absorbed solutes entering xylem; water either goes thru cells(filtered by cw & membrane) or b/w cells (blocked by waxy layer=Casparian strip)
LYCOPHYTES
spike-mosses & club-mosses(NOT MOSSES!); dichotomously branched, microphylls, true roots, lateral sporangia
DICHOTOMOUSLY BRANCHED
branched into 2 equal parts; lycophytes & bryophytes
MICROPHYLLS
small leaves w/ one vein(xylem + phloem conduit)
TRUE ROOTS
multicellular, complex, underground organ for absorbing water and nutrients(xylem + phloem- different from rhizoids)
LATERAL SPORANGIA
ancentral condition=terminal; often concentrated in specialized areas=strobilus(nonflowering plants, a cluster of spore-producing structures)
EUPHYLLOPHYTES
includes ferns + "gymnosperms" + angiosperms; multiflagellate sperm, endogenous roots, & overtopping growth, megaphyll
MULTIFLAGELLATE SPERM
ancentral condion=2
ENDOGENOUS ROOTS
lateral roots originate from inside main root
OVERTOPPING GROWTH
unequal branching of apical meristem(ancestral growth=dichotomous branching)
MEGAPHYLLS
large leaves w/ many veins; evolutionary derived from overtopping-flattening branch system-webbing b/w branches
FERNS
sporophyte dominant w/ megaphylls, endogeneous roots, & overtopped stem growth, sporangia on leaves, sorus
SORUS
cluster of sporangia; ie ferns
LEPTOSPORANGIA
sporangia; stalked, thin-walled, annulus
ANNULUS
sensitive to humidity, opens sporangium, releases spores
SEED PLANTS
includes "gymnosperms" + angiosperms; axillary branching, secondary growth, heterospory
AXILLARY BRANCHING
lateral buds(in leaf axils) that can also branch (ancenstral condition=branching apical meristem only)
STELE
xylem + phloem of a stem or root
PROTOSTELE
primitive type of stele=xylem core surrounded by phloem; produced by apical meristem
EUSTELE
advanced type of stele=units of 1 xylem and 1 phloem(vascular bundles) arranged in a ring; produced by apical meristem
SECONDARY XYLEM
wood!
HETEROSPORY
Seeds! production of 2 types of spores-from unisexual gametophyte(sep. male and female gametophytes)
HOMOSPORY
ancestral condition=homospory=all spores the same-from a bisexual gametophyte=gametophyte that can produce both gametes
SEED
# of megaspores/sporangium is one, keep spore inside sporangium & reduce female gametophyte, surround w/ protective tissue layer=integument
OVULE
young seed (w/ unfertilized egg & integument)
POLLINATION DROPLET
=water; pollen grain lands on at micropyle
INTEGUMENT
protects zygote & developing embryo
MICROSPORANGIUM
microspores develop inside a different sporangium, microspore=male gametophyte w/ 2 sperm-pollen grain
MEGASPORANGIUM
megaspore forms by meiosis in the ovary of seed-bearing plants
MICROPYLE
opening of ovule
GYMNOSPERMS
naked seeds (only 1 integument); conifers & cycads
CONIFERS
cone-bearing plants, well branched stems, simple megaphylls(needles or scales), well-developed wood, cone, disperse by wind, resin in internal canals, microsporangia in strobili
CONE
seeds on complex shoot system
CYCADS
palm-like growth(usually short unbranched stem), soft wood (lots of parenchyma), slime canals w/ poisonous chemicals (cycasins), megaphylls large & compound, seeds on modified leaves-usually in strobilus, microsporangia(pollen) on separate strobilus, insect pollinated
ANGIOSPERMS
flowering plants, simple leaves, xylem w/ vessels, phloem w/ sieve tube members, dble fertilization, flower, ovules w/ 2 integuments, seed
DOUBLE FERTILIZATION
1 sperm fertilizes egg, 2nd sperm fuses w/ 2 cells of female gametophyte-endosperm
FLOWER
modified stem axis w/ modified leaves attached; sepals-calyx(protective); petals-corolla(pollinator attract); stamens(anther+filament)-androecium(pollen-producing structures); carpels(stigma+style+ovary)-gynoecium(ovule-producing structures)
FRUIT
ovary w/ mature ovules-fruit containing seeds
OVULE
for flowering plants, female gametophyte develops on sporophyte
SEED
ovule after fertilization in flowering plants
INFLORESCENCE
clustered flowers; sunflowers
SAPROPHYTES (FUNGI)
absorb nutrients from dead stuff
PARASITES (FUNGI)
absorb nutrients from live stuff
SYMBIOTIC (FUNGI)
lichens and mycorrhizae
CHITIN
cw; glucose polymer w/ nitrogen; shared characteristic w/ animals
MYCELIUM
=body=mass of mulitcell filaments(hyphae); main body of fungus
SEPTA
in fungi, cross walls with pores for organelles to flow, that divide hyphae
MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI
symbiotic fungi on/in plant roots; provides great surface area for water/nutrient absorption, in return plant provides sucrose &/or micronutrients
ENDOMYCORRHIZAE
fungi inside roots, mostly zygomycetes
ECTOMYCORRHIZAE
fungi on outside of roots, mainly basidiomycetes
CHYTRIDS
primitive fungi, spores w/ flagella, multinucleate hyphae
ZYGOMYCETES
black bread molds, no septa, sexual part of life cycle: 2 hyphae strains fuse-nuclei fuse to form zygosporangium(2n)-meiosis-zygospores(n)
ASCOMYCETES
sac fungi, unicell-multicell, septa in hyphae(single spore in each septum), sex cycle: 2 hyphae strains fuse-form ascus(2n)-meiosis-ascospores(n); ie ergot(LSD), brewer's yeast
BASIDIOMYCETES
mushrooms, mycelium=dikaryotic filaments w/ cross walls to control flow of organelles(diplore septa); sex cycle: 2 nuclei fuse-basidium(2n)-meiosis-basidiospores(n)
MUSHROOM
reproductive structure that bears basidia
GILLS
specific area on the mushroom that bear basidia
DEUTEROMYCETES
imperfect fungi; no known sex stage of life cycle, ie housemold, Penicillium was now ascomycete
LICHEN
symbiotic association b/w fungus & an alga; fungus=house(ascomycete), alga=food-maker(chlorophyte or cyanobacterium), asexual reproduction by propagules(dispersal units of fungus + alga) & independently sexually reproduce; forms are crustose (crusty), foliose(leafy), and fruticose(branched)