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51 Cards in this Set

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Offspring that result from crosses between true-breeding parents with different traits are called...
Hybrids
Mendel concluded that traits are...
Not inherited through the passing of factors from parents to offspring.
When Mendel crossed True-breeding tall plants with True-breeding short plants, all offspring were tall because...
the allele for tall plants is dominant.
In the P generation, a tall plant was crossed with a short plant. Short plants reappeared in the F2 generation because...
The allele for shortness and the allele for tallness segregated when the F1 plants produced gametes.
The principles of probability can be used to...
predict the traits of the parents used in genetic crosses.
A punnett square shows all except...
The actual results of a genetic cross
How many different allele combinations would be found in the gametes produced by a pea plant whose genotype was RrYY?
2.
A cross of a white hen with a black rooster produces erminette-color offspring. This type of inheritance is known as...
codominance
What is one true statement about Thomas Hunt Morgan?
Morgan chose to use fruit flies in his study of genetics because fruit flies produce a large number of offspring.
If an organism's diploid number is 12, its haploid number is...
6.
Chromosomes form tetrads during...
prohase of meiosis 1.
Gregor Mendel used pea plants to study...
the inheritance of traits.
What are Mendel's factors called today?
genes.
The principle of dominance states that...
some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.
When Mendel allowed the tall F1 pea plants (Tt) to self-pollinate,
some of the offspring were short.
Two plants with the genotypes TT and Tt...
would have the same phenotype.
Organisms that have two identical allelea for a particular trait are said to be...
homozygous.
What principle states that during gamete formationgenes for different traits separate without influencing each other's inheritance?
principlce of indepentent assortment.
Situations in which one allele for a gene is not completely dominant over another allele for that gene are called...
incomplete dominance.
Mendel's principles of genetics apply to...
all organisms.
The number of chromosomes in a gamete is represented by the symbol...
N.
Gametes are produced by the process of...
meiosis.
Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of...
haploid cells.
What did Griffith observe when he injected into mice a mixture of heat-killed disease-causing bacteria and live harmless bacteria?
The mice developed pneumonia.
What is a nucleotide found in DNA?
deoxyribose+phosphate group+cytosine
DNA replication results in two DNA molecules,
each with one new strand and one original strand.
During mitosis, the...
DNA molecules become more tightly coiled.
Unlike DNA, RNA contains...
uracil.
Which type of RNA is is involved in protein synthesis?
messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA.
During transcription, an RNA molecule is formed...
inside the nucleus.
How many codons are needed to specify three amino acids?
3.
What is least related to tRNA, polypeptide, and anticodon?
intron.
Which type of RNA functions as a blueprint of the genetic code?
mRNA.
What is not a gene mutation?
inversion.
Proteins that bind to regulatory sites on DNA...
determine whether a gene is expressed.
A lac repressor turns off the lac genes by binding to...
the operator.
Gene regulation in eukaryotes...
allows for cell specialization.
What is not true about Hox genes?
They are found in different animals are very different from each other.
Avery's experiments showed that bacteria are transformed by...
DNA.
DNA is copied during a process called...
replication.
In eukaryotes, DNA...
is located in the nucleus.
RNA contains the sugar...
ribose.
Which RNA molecule carries amino acids?
transfer RNA.
What is produced during transcription?
RNA molecules.
What happens during the process of translation?
The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins.
Genes contain instructions for assebling...
proteins.
A mutation that involves a single nucleotide is called a...
point mutation.
A promoter is a...
binding site for RNA polymerase.
In E. coli, the lac operon controls the...
breakdown of lactose.
Which is NOT generally part of a eukaryotic gene?
operon.
Hox genes determine an animal's...
basic body plan.