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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
why are light microscopes and electron microscopes different?
light - produce images by focusing on visible light rays
electron - produces magnified images by focusing beams of electrons
what is metabolism?
the biological process that includes reactions that break down materials
what is the difference between sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction?
asexual - only needs one organism to reproduce
sexual - needs two organisms to reproduce
what are the different levels of living organisms?
molecules, cells, organisms, populations, communities, biosphere
when does a scientific theory develop?
when evidence from a lot of different experiments support the same hypothesis
what are the 5 characteristics of living things?
1. made up of cells
2. grow and develop
3. respond to their environment
4. stable internal environment
5. obtain and use energy and material
what is homeostasis?
process of keeping the body at a stable internal balance such as body temperature and water content
what are the levels of organization?
individual, species, population, community, ecosystem, biome
what are the steps of the scientific method?
1. observe a question
2. form a hypothesis
3. research
4. experiment
5. record and analyze data
6. form a conclusion
7. work is replicated
what are the 2 main forms of energy that power living systems?
sunlight & inorganic chemical compounds
which way does energy flow in an ecosystem?
from the sun to producers to consumers
what percent of energy is transfer red from one tropic level to the next?
10%
why is the flow of matter and energy in the ecosystem different?
matter - is recycled
energy - flows only one way
what are [N2] Nitrogen cycles?
nitrogen is mved through the biosphere from organisms and the soil and air in different forms
what is a food web?
chart that shows the flow of energy between all members of an ecosystem
what are the 4 food pyramid levels
bottom - primary producers
second - primary consumers
next - secondary consumers
top - tertiary consumers
what is the greenhouse effect?
natural system in which heat is retained in the Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
what are the Earth's 3 main climate zones?
tropical, temperate, polar
what are the main factors that determine Earth's climate?
trapping of heat in the atmosphere, latitude, transport of heat by wind and water, precipitation
what is the difference between biotic and abiotic factors?
abiotic - nonliving, physical, factor that shapes an environment
biotic - biological influence on organisms within an ecosystem
which way does energy flow in an ecosystem?
from the sun to producers to consumers
what percent of energy is transfer red from one tropic level to the next?
10%
why is the flow of matter and energy in the ecosystem different?
matter - is recycled
energy - flows only one way
what are [N2] Nitrogen cycles?
nitrogen is mved through the biosphere from organisms and the soil and air in different forms
what is a food web?
chart that shows the flow of energy between all members of an ecosystem
what are the 4 food pyramid levels
bottom - primary producers
second - primary consumers
next - secondary consumers
top - tertiary consumers
what is the greenhouse effect?
natural system in which heat is retained in the Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
what are the Earth's 3 main climate zones?
tropical, temperate, polar
what are the main factors that determine Earth's climate?
trapping of heat in the atmosphere, latitude, transport of heat by wind and water, precipitation
what is the difference between biotic and abiotic factors?
abiotic - nonliving, physical, factor that shapes an environment
biotic - biological influence on organisms within an ecosystem
what is population density?
# of individuals per unit area in a population
what is climate?
the average temperature and average precipitation
what is a niche?
full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
what are the 3 characteristics that are used to describe a population?
geographic distribution, density, growth rate
what is the difference between primary succesion and secondary succesion?
primary - one that naturally occurs overtime
secondary - one following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
what are the 3 types of community interactions?
symbiosis, predation, competition
what factors change a population size?
number of births, number of deaths, number of individuals that enter or leave the population
what is the difference between exponential growth and logistic growth?
exponential - when individuals in a population reproduce @ a constant rate
logistic - when a population's growth slows or stops following a period of exponential growth
what is carrying capacity?
largest # of individuals of a population that a given area can support
what are 3 density dependent factors?
competition, predation, disease
how can a limited resource affect the size of a population?
because if a resource is limited then part of the population will die because there is not enough food for everyone the population will decrease
what is an example of a density - independent factor?
hurricane, tornado, natural disaster
what are the points of a logistic growth curve?
A. species is first introduced to environment
B. period of exponential growth occurs
C. growth slows
D. population growth reaches peak
E. steady state