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58 Cards in this Set

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why is water so important to life?
-a good solvent
-moderated effects of temperature
-forms an unusual solid:ice
-sticks together
water + dissolved subsance =
solution
waht dissolves molecules with ionic bonds?
NaCL-salt
what dissolves polar molecules?
gluclose-sugar
the inside of our cells are mostly....
water
water is less ---when frozen
dense
has a tendency to stick together?
cohesion
surface tension?
surfce reists tension
adhesion?
sticks to polar surface
hydroxide ions is -- and --
negative and basic
hydrogen is -- and --
positive and acidic
acids and bases forms when
water dissociates
acids and bases release H+ when...
dissolved in H20 bases
acids and bases release OH wen...
dissolved in H20
the pH scale ranges from
0-14
(pH) a solution is acidic if it is...
less than 7
as you go down the scale there a fewer ---ions
hydrogen
living things actively maintain their complex structure and their internal enviornment
homeostatis
a particle composed of one or more atom held together by chemcial bonds; the smallest particle of a compound that displays all the propteries of that compound
molecule
molecules with carbon and hydrogen, mostly made by living things?
organic molecules
most biological molecules are ---based
carbon
molecules with C and H-mostly made by living things
organic molecules
how are organic molecules synthesized?
1 use the same functional groups
2 formed by the modular group
a monomer is a...
one single monomer
a dimer is...
2 monomers together
a polymer is...
multiple monomers
how does a cell reverse the action?
hydrolysis reaction
"lysis" means splitting
what are carbohydrates?
means carbon and water
(CH20)
3 types of carbs?
monosaccharides
polysaccharides
disacchardies
what is a monosacchardie composed of?
1 sugar
immediate E
what is a disacchardie composed of?
2 sugars
short term E storage, transport
what is a polysaccharide composed of?
many sugars, long term E storage, structural
what is chitin?
makes up arthropod exoskeletons and fungus cell walls
what are lipids?
lipds include: oil, fats, and waxes
phospholipids
steroids
characteristics of lipids?
large regions with mostly C and H; non popular; hydrophobic; insoluble in H20
what is osmosis?
the diffusion of water across a differently preamble membrane
what are the effects of osmosis?
isotonic solution, hypertonic solution, hypotonic solution
a concentration gradient cease to exist when...
there is no movement of molecules
a single-celled freshwater organism, such as portisian, is transferred to salt water. what is likely to happen?
the cell shrinks
what is energy requiring transport?
movement of substances in or out of a cell using energy
what is active transport?
movement via membrane-spanning proteins
what does active transport require?
E
active transport transports aganist what?
conc gradient
endocytosis moves...?
large particles in
exocytosis moves...?
moves materials out
what is endo-excocytosis?
cell ingestion and excretion---it is the active process for large molecules or large groups of molecules
endocytosis means?
engulfment
what is pinocytosis?
"cell drinking"; cell engulfs extracellular fluid
what is phagocytosis?
"cell eating"; cell engulfs large particles
what is receptor-mediated endocytosis?
molecules bind to receptor proteins and forms vesicles that brings in a high concentration of those molecules
exocyotis means?
expulsion; material enclosed in a vesicle that fuses with plasma membrane
the cytoplasm of a certain cell, such as a nueron, already has a high concentration of K+ ions, how can K+ ions continue to enter the cell?
active transport
water will ___ the cells of a fish living in fresh water becuase of the process of osmosis?
move into
how are cell surfaces specialized?
desmosomes
tight junctions
cell communication
cell walls
what do desmosomes do?
stregthen attachments between cells- basically proteins
what do tight junctions do?
prevent leakage between cells
what are gap junctions?
cell to cell channels connecting adjacent cells
what are plasmodesmatas?
channels through plant cell walls connecting adjacent cells