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51 Cards in this Set

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prophase
the longest phase; takes 50-60% of the total time required to complete mitosis.
describe anaphase
third phase of mitosis
1. centomeres that join the sister chromatids split.
2.the chromatids are now becoming individual chromosomes.
3.as they separate the spindle gets larger
4.continue to move until they have separated into two small groups.
5.anaphase ends when the movement stops.
describe telophase
final phase of mitosis
1.the chromosomes begin to uncoil into a tangle of chromatin.
2.this occurs where the nuclei of the daughter cells will form.
3.the nuclear envelope reforms around the chromatin.
4.the spindle breaks apart
5.nucleolus becomes visible
centriole
structure involved in mitosis that contains a microtubule protein called tubulin
describe cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm
1.cell membrane moves inward until the cytoplasm is pinched into two nearly equal parts
2. each part contains its own nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles.
interphase
the period between cell divisions
spindle
meshlike structure of microtubules that appears to guide the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.
metaphase
second phase of mitosis
anaphase
third phase of mitosis
telophase
final phase of mitosis
where in the cell do the food, oxygen, and water enter the cell and waste products leave
the cell membrane
what determines how fast food and oxygen are used up and waste products are produced
the cell volume or the amount of space within the cell
what are the reasons why cells dont grow much larger even if the organism they are a part of does.
1. because if the cell is big than it will have a harder time receiving all the nutrients, and getting rid of wastes because of all the trafic.
2.because the cell wont be able to produce enough RNA to supply the increasing needs of the growing cell.
what is the reason for cell division
so that the cell doesnt have problems with things entering and leaving because it is too large, and so that the cell has enough RNA to supply the cell with
Why cant ideal conditions for cell growth be maintained
because otherwise in three days bacterias such as E.Coli can grow to the mass of the earth.
how rapidly do your body cells divided
heart/nervous system-rarely divide, if neverr
skin/digestive tract-grow and divide rapidly throughout life to replace worn out or broken down due to wear and tear
why do cells stop growing when being contained in a nutrient broth
because when cells come into contact with other cells the respond by not growing
when do controls on cells turn on and off
when you have an injury-cut/break a bone-cells at the edges are stimulated to divide.this starts healing process. when the healing process completes itself the rate of cell division slows down and everything returns to normal
what are some consequences of uncontrolled cell growth
cancer-disorder in which some cells have lost the ability to control their own rate of growth.--will continue to divide until the supply of nutrients is exhausted.
what two main stages does the division of eukaryotic cells occur in
1.mitosis
2.cytokinesis
why does chromosome mean colored body
because it was derived from the fact that when a dye was added to the cell, the chromosomes picked up the color of the dye and were easily seen through the light microscope during cell division
how do chromosomes contain the genetic information
through the form of DNA.
how are the chromosomes made up in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
pro-the chromosomes are made up of long circular molecules of DNA.
euk-the chromosomes are made up of distinct lengths of DNA.
how are the chromosomes made up in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
pro-the chromosomes are made up of long circular molecules of DNA.
euk-the chromosomes are made up of distinct lengths of DNA.
cell division
process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells:
describe chromatin and what they do
a material that makes up chromosomes. these materials form dense and dispersed regions during the time between cell divisions.. chromatin condense and become visible during mitosis.
what is chromatin composed of
DNA and protein
what does the protein do in the chromatin
it is involved in the folding of DNA so that it can fit within the nucleus.
mitosis
process by which the nucleus of a cell is divided into two nuclei, each with the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the parent cell
how does DNA fit into the chromosome
Don&Ada Olins, and Christopher Woodcock found out that the chromosomes DNA was coiled around special proteins called histones.When together the histone and DNA produce beadlike structures called nucleosomes.
describe nuclesomes
a beadlike structure containing a histone wrapped in DNA. these nucleosomes interact with one another to form a thick fiber. the end result is the tightly packed chromosomes that are seen through a light microscope that can be separated during mitosis.
what is the structure of chromosomes
the chromosome contains two chromatids also called sister chromatids. each pair is attached at the centromere.
what is the centromere
located near the middle of the chromatids, some lie at the ends of chromatids.
describe the cell cycle
during a cell cycle, a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells, each of which begins the cycle all over again
what stages does the cell cycle include
mitosis-a period of active division, interphase-a period of nondivision during which other processes take place.
cytokinesis-a process in which cytoplasm and its contents divide.
how are the rates of different cells cycles in the body
muscle/nerve- dont divide at all once they have developed
cells lining organs of digestive-rapidly divide every six hours
what are the three phases of interphase, and briefly describe each one
gap 1-intense growth and developement
DNA synthesis- DNA replication, and several proteins are synthesized
gap2- shortest of three phases, synthesizes the organelles and materials required for cell division
how many phases are in mitosis and what are they called
four;prophase,metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
describe prophase
first stage- takes 50-60% of the mitosis process.
1.chromosomes start to appear because of the condensing and coiling of the yarnlike chromatin.
2.two centrioles separate from each other and go to two different sides of the cell. then they form a spindle.
3.the condensed chromosomes become attached to fibers in the spindle at the point near the centromere of each chromatid.
4. coiling of chromosomes becomes tighter
5. nucleus disappears and the nuclear envelope breaks down
what do the centrioles do
they separate and move to each end of the cell. then they form a spindle, meshlike structure that helps move the chromosomes apart
describe metaphase
the shortest of mitosis,
1.chromosomes line up across the equator of the cell.
2. microtubules connect the centromere of each chromosome to the poles of the spindle.
3. the arrangement looks like a star and is sometimes called an aster.
describe telophase
final phase
describe cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm
cytokinesis
process by which cells cytoplasm divides to form two distinct cells.
chromosome
threadlike structure in a cell that contains the genetic information that is passed on from one generation of cells to the next
chromotin
one of two distinct strands that make up each chromosome.
chromatin
one of two distinct strands that make up each chromosome.
chromotid
one of two distinct strands that make up each chromosome.
centromere
an area where each pair of chromotids is attached at.
cell cycle
period from the beginning of one mitosis to the beginning of the next
cell cycle
period from the beginning of one mitosis to the beginning of the next