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19 Cards in this Set

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Homeostasis -
maintenance of stable internal conditions in a changing environment
One way a cell maintains homeostasis is by...
controlling the movement of substances across the cell membrane
The cell membrane is made of...
phospholipids
Phospholipid -
specialized lipid made of a phosphate head and two fatty acid tails
Lipid Bilayer -
phospholipids form a double layer and make the cell membrane
Only _____ can pass through the lipid bilayer
certain substances
Only ____, ____ substances can pass through the cell membrane
small, nonpolar
In a solution, randomly moving molecules tend to fill up a space. When that space is filled up evenly, a state of _____ is reached
equilibrium
Concentration -
the amount of a particular substance in a given volume
Concentration Gradient -
when one area has a higher concentration than another's
Diffusion -
movement of substances down a concentration gradient
Simple Diffusion -
movement in which small, nonpolar molecules can pass directly through the lipid bilayer
Facilitated Diffusion -
transport proteins help these substances diffuse through the cell membrane
Osmosis -
water can diffuse across a selectively permeable membrane
Hypertonic -
solution that has a higher solute concentration than the cytoplasm does; water moves out of cell
Isotonic -
solution that has the same solute concentration that the cytoplasm does; water diffuses in and out of cell equally
Hypotonic -
solution that has a lower solute concentration than the cytoplasm does; water moves into the cell
Active Transport -
requires energy to move substances against their concentration gradients
Sodium-Potassium Pump -
carrier protein that actively transports three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell.