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41 Cards in this Set

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24. What will happen to an animal cell if its placed in pure water? Why?
It will swell and burst beacuse cells are filled with salts, sugars, and proteins they would always be in danger of exploding, if placed in fresh water. The water is hypotonic to their insides.
25. Define Diffusion.
Diffusion-molecules tend to move from an area where they more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.
26. Why does diffusion occur in the first place?
Diffusion occurs in the first place because diffusion causes many substances to move across a cell membrane but does not require the cell to use energy.
27. What is the job of the proteins in the cell membrane?
Proteins run through the lipid layer; some form channels and pumps that help to move materials across the membrane.
28. Why is facilitated diffusion still just diffusion?
Facilitated diffusion still diffusion because membrane proteins with channels facilitate or help the diffusion of glucose across the membrane.
29. Active transport is different from diffusion and osmosis because it requires what?
Active transport is different from diffusion and osmosis because it requires energy.
32. What happens to a plant and animal cell when placed in a hypotonic solution? A Hypertonic solution?
When placed in a hypotonic solution the cell swells and bursts. But it is protected from osmotic pressure when placed in a hypertonic solution.
33. What is endocytosis? exocytosis? These are both forms of what?
Endocytosis-process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets, of cell membrane. Exocytosis-the removal of large amounts of material from a cell. These are both forms of active transport.
34. If a cell contains 5% dissolved salts and 95% water, what will happen to it if it is placed in 92% water solutions?
It is is placed in 92% water solution it will swell and burst.
35. Describe phagocytosis?
Phagocytosis-process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
36. The low power magnification is 75X and the high power magnification is 800X. The low power field diameter is 1.3 MM. What is the high power field diameter in micrometers?
1.3MM X 75 X/800X = .121875 -> .12MM
37. The low power field diameter is 2000 micrometers. 15 cells will fit across the diameter. What is the length of one cell?
2000 X 75 / 800 = 187.5 / 15 = 12.5MM
38. What are the 3 parts of the cell theory?
Cell theory: 1) all living things are composed of cells 2) cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things 3) new cells are produced from existing cells.
39. What is the material that lies btw the cell membrane and the nucleus?
Cytoplasm is the material that lies btw the cell membrane and the nucleus.
40. What is function of the pores in the nuclear envelope?
The nuclear pores allow material to move into and out of the nucleus.
41. What is the function of the contractile vacuole?
The function of the contractile vacuole is to help single celled organelles maintain homeostasis.
01. What contributions did Schleiden and Schwann make to the cell theory?
Schleiden concluded that all plants are made up of cells and Schwann concluded that all animals are made up of cells.
03. Who was the first person to see cells?
Anton van Leeuwenhock was the first person to see tiny living organisms in a drop of water.
04. What types of cells typically have a cell wall?
Cell walls are found in many organisms, including plants, algae, fungi, and nearly all prokaryotes.
05. What are cell walls composed of? Cell Membranes?
Most cell walls are made from fibers of carbohydrates and protein.
06. Describe the structure of cilia and flagella? What is their function?
In some cells, bundles of microtubules form hairlike projections from the cell surface known as cilia & flagella. Cilia and flagella enable cells to swim rapidly through liquids.
07. What are the functions of the nucleus?
The nucleus controls most cell processes and contains the hereditary information of DNA.
09. What are organelles? What kinds of cells have them?
Organelles- specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell. All plants, animals & fungi, and many microorganisms are eukaryotes.
02. What are the main differences btw prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
Main difference btw eukaryotes and prokaryotes: the cells of eukaryotes have a nucleus, but the cells of prokaryotes do not.
08. Why is the rough endoplasmic reticulum called "rough" in the first place?
The rough endoplasmic reticulum has this name because of the ribosomes that stud its surface.
30. What does isotonic mean?
Isotonic -(the solutions are the same strength) concentration of water in the solution is the same as the cell's
31. What is the difference in active transport compared to osmosis and diffusion when considering the concentration differences?
Active transport of molecules and ions against a concentration difference requires transport proteins and energy.
10. Label the parts of the cell
A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H, I
11. Where is the nucleolus found and what is its function?
It is located in the middle. Function of the nucleolus:where the assembly of ribosomes begins.
12. What is the function of the mitochondria?
Mitochondria use energy from food to make high-energy compounds that the cell can use to power growth, development, and movement.
13. What happens in the Golgi apparatus?
Enzymes in the Golgi appartus attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins. From the Golgi appartus, proteins are then sent to their final destinations.
14. The cytoskeleton is composed of what two structures?
The cytoskeleton is made up of a number of important structures, including microtubules and micro filaments.
15. What are the functions of the cytoskeleton?
The cytoskeleton helps to support the cell. The cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape.
16. Diagram and label the parts of the nucleus.
4 parts
17. What do plant cells have that animal cells do not?
Plant cells-contain cell walls, large vacuoles, and chloroplasts. Animal cell-do not have cell walls or chloroplasts.
18. What are the functions of the lysosome?
Lysosomes break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, and organelles that have out lived their usefulness.
19. What is chromatin? What does it become when the cell divides?
Chromatin-granular material visible within the nucleus. When a cell divides, chromatin condenses to form chromosomes.
20. What do ribosomes produce?
Ribosomes produce proteins.
21. What are the functions of the cell membrane?
Cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support.
22. Describe what happens to the molecules when they have reached equilibrium.
Once equilibrium is reached molecules continue to mvoe rapidly across the membrane in both directions.
23. What does the lipid bilayer do for the cell membrane?
The bilayer gives cell membranes a tough, flexible structure that forms a strong barrier btw the cell and its surroundings.