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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cell
collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings; basic unit of all forms of life
Cell Theory
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
Cell Membrane
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Cell Wall
strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
Nucleus
the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, large structure inside some cells that contains the cell’s genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell’s activities
Cytoplasm
material inside the cell membrane—but not including the nucleus
Prokaryote
single-celled microorganism that lacks a nucleus
Eukaryote
organism whose cells contain nuclei
Organelle
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
Chromatin
granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
Chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
Nucleolus
small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of ribosomes begins
Nuclear Envelope
double-membrane layer that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
Cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
Microtubule
hollow tube of protein that maintains cell shape and can also serve as a “track” along which organelles are moved
microfilament
long, thin fiber that functions in the movement and support of the cell
ribosome
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
endoplasmic reticulum
internal membrane system in cells in which components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified
Golgi Apparatus/ Golgi Body
stack of membranes in the cell in which enzymes attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins
lysosome
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
Vacuole
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
Chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that uses energy from sunlight to make energy-rich food molecules by photosynthesis
mitochondrion
cell organelle that releases energy from stored food molecules
lipid bilayer
double-layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes
concentration
the mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume
diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
selective permeability
property of biological membranes that allows only certain substances to pass through them
osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
active transport
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
endocytosis
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
phagocytosis
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
exocytosis
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
cell specialization
separate roles for each type of cell in multicellular organisms
tissue
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
Organ
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
organ system
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function