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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the structure that makes up every living thing?
The cell
What was Anoton van Leeuwenhoek the first to see in the 1600s?
the tiny organisms in a drop of water
What did a thin slice of cork seem like to Rober Hooke when he observed it through a microscope?
thousands of tiny chambers
What did the German botanist Matthias Schleiden conclude?
that all plants are made of cells
What did the German scientist Theodor Schwann conclude?
animals are made of cells
How did Rudolph Virchow summarize his years of work?
"Where a cell exists, there must have been a preexisting cell."
What are the three concepts that make up the cell theory?
all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain their own genettic information in the form of:
Biologist Lynn Margulis suggested that mitochondria and chloroplasts are descendants of what kind of organsims?
ancient prokaryotes
Cell Structure:
Factory Part:
steel beams and columns
Cell Structure:
Factory Part:
main office
Cell Structure:
Factory Part:
factory machines
Cell Structure:
Golgi apparatus
Factory Part:
customization shop
Cell Structure:
Factory Part:
solar power plants
Cell Structure:
Factory Part:
oil-burning furnaces
prokayotes (defenition)
organisms whose cells lack nuclei
prokayotes (examples)
bacteria, Escherichia coli (in the intestines), and Staphylococcus aureus (in infections)
eukaryotes (definition)
organisms whose cells contain nuclei
eukaryotes (examples)
plants, animals, and fungi
True about prokaryotes:
a. They grow and reproduce
b. Many are large, multicellular organisms
c. They are more complex than cells of eukaryotes
d. They have cell membranes and cytoplasm
A, B, and D
What is an organelle?
specialized structures that perform important cellular functions
Are all eukaryotes large, multicellular organisms?
no, but many are. Some are single-celled organisms.
In what organisms are cell walls found?
plants, algae, fungi, and nearly all prokaryotes - not animal
Is the following true of false:
the cell wall lies inside the cell membrane
false, the cell wall lies outside the cell membrane
What is the main function of the cell wall?
to provide support and protection for the cell
What are plant cell walls mostly made of?
cellulose, a tough carbohydrate fiber
Is the following true or false:
some cell structures are specific to either plant or animal cells
Ribosome (description)
small particle of RNA and protein that produces protein following instructions from nucleus
Endoplasmic reticulum (description)
an internal membrane system in which components of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed
Golgi apparatus (description)
stack of membranes in which enzymes attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins
Lysosome (description)
filled with enzymes used to break down food into particles that can be used
Vacuole (description)
saclike structure that stores materials
chloroplast (description)
uses energy from sunlight to make energy-rich food
mitochondrion (description)
uses energy from food to make high-energy compounds
the process that occurs in chloroplasts is called:
Is the following true or false:
both cloroplasts and mitochondria are enclosed by two envelope membranes
Animal cells contain which of the following?:
a. chloroplasts
b. lysosomes
c. cytoskeleton
d. ER
B, C, and D
Plant cells contain which of the following?:
a. cell wall
b. ER
c. lysosomes
d. chloroplast
A, B, and D
a theory that states that all living things are composed of cells
cell theory
Cell Membrane (function)
gatekeeper to control what enters/leaves the cell. present in ALL cells
Cell Wall (function)
outer support and strength
Nucleus (function)
manages cell functions. contains DNA
Nucleolus (function)
makes ribosomes
Mitochondria (function)
oxidizes (burns) food to release energy
Endoplasmic reticulum (function)
Provides sufrace area for making proteins, modifies some proteins, network for transporting the proteins throughout the cell
Golgi apparatus (function)
packages, stores, and secretes protein products - UPS of the cell
Lysosome (function)
contains enzymes that break down large molecules, worn out cell parts, or whole cells
Cytoplasm (function)
all of the functions collectively, area inside cell including everying but the nucleus
Microfilament (function)
causes movement within cell, internal support/shape
Chloroplast (function)
convert sunlight energy into chemical (food) energy
Vacuole (function)
stores food, water, salts, proteins, and wastes; many plants have one large central vacuole
Microtubules (function)
hollow tubes - internal support; unit parts of cilia, flangella, centrioles
Ribosomes (function)
workers, assemble the proteins
Centrioles (function)
aid in cell division
Nuclear envelope (function)
surrounds nuclues, allows information carrying molecules to pass out of the rest of the cells - RNA
Chromatin (function)
contains coded instructions for making proteins, ususally spread throught the nucleus
Cilia (function)
contains coded instructions, spread throught the nucleus
Flagella (function)
larger than cilia, 20 cell lengths a second