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20 Cards in this Set

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The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning, consisting of one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles, all surrounded by a semipermeable cell membrane.
cell
a theory in biology that includes one or both of the statements that the cell is the fundamental structural and functional unit of living matter and that the organism is composed of autonomous cells with its properties being the sum of those of its cells
cell theory
A chlorophyll-containing plastid found in algal and green plant cells.
chloroplast
A minute round particle composed of RNA and protein that is found in the cytoplasm of living cells and serves as the site of assembly for polypeptides encoded by messenger RNA.
ribosome
A membrane-bound organelle in the cytoplasm of most cells containing various hydrolytic enzymes that function in intracellular digestion.
lysosome
A small cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell, bound by a single membrane and containing water, food, or metabolic waste.
vacuole
The internal framework of a cell, composed largely of actin filaments and microtubules.
cytoskeleton
One of two cylindrical cellular structures that are composed of nine triplet microtubules and form the asters during mitosis.
centriole
Having the lower osmotic pressure of two fluids.
hypotonic
Having the higher osmotic pressure of two solutions
hypertonic
A colorless plastid in the cytoplasm of plant cells around which starch collects
leucoplast
Introduction of fluids into a cell by invagination of the cell membrane, followed by formation of vesicles within the cells.
piocytosis
The engulfing and ingestion of bacteria or other foreign bodies by phagocytes
phagocytosis
The rigid outermost cell layer found in plants and certain algae, bacteria, and fungi but characteristically absent from animal cells.
cell wall
The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell
cell membrane
A small, typically round granular body composed of protein and RNA in the nucleus of a cell. It is usually associated with a specific chromosomal site and involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis and the formation of ribosomes.
nucleolus
A process of cellular secretion or excretion in which substances contained in vesicles are discharged from the cell by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the outer cell membrane.
exocytosis
A process of cellular ingestion by which the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the cell
endocytosis
A large, membrane-bound, usually spherical protoplasmic structure within a living cell, containing the cell's hereditary material and controlling its metabolism, growth, and reproduction.
nucleus
The protoplasm outside the nucleus of a cell.
cytoplasm