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37 Cards in this Set

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Selective Permeability
The plasma membrane allows some substances to cross it more easily than others.
Amphipathic
A molecule that has both a hydrophilic region and hydrophobic region.
Fluid Mosaic Model
The membrane is a fluid structure with a a mosaic of various proteins embedded in or attached to a double layer of phospholipids.
Integral Proteins
These are proteins that penetrate the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer.
How does cholesterol affect the plasma membrane?
It keeps it fluid, preventing the phospholipids from becoming too rigid at low temperatures.
Peripheral Proteins
They are appendages loosely bound to the surface of the plasma membrane.
Glycolipids
Lipids in the presence of carbohydrate
Transport Proteins
Proteins that span the membrane allowing hydrophilic substances to pass through the membrane.
Aquaporins
Transport proteins that allow water to pass through.
Diffusion
Passive transport of material down a gradient.
Concentration Gradient
The region along which the density of a chemical substance increases or decreases. No work must be done to make this happen.
Passive Transport
Diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane using NO ENERGY.
Osmosis
Diffusion of water
Tonicity
The ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water.
Isotonic
The concentration is the same within the cell and outside the cell
Hypertonic
If the solution is hypertonic, it has a higher concentration relative to the cell in it. This will cause the cell to shrivel as water leaves it.
Hypotonic
The solution has a lower concentration than the cell in it. This will cause the cell to swell or burst as water enters it.
Osmoregulation
The control of solute concentrations and water balance.
Turgid
Very firm. Used when referring to plants.
Flaccid
Limp. Used when referring to plants.
Facilitated Diffusion
This is diffusion but it is assisted by transport proteins which only allow some substances to pass through but not others.
Plasmolysis
A plant cell undergoes this when it is placed in a hypertonic solution, forcing its plasma membrane to pull away from the wall.
Ion Channels
Channel proteins that transport ions.
Gated Channels
Ion channels that open or close in response to a stimulus.
Active Transport
The solute is pumped across the membrane against its gradient, forcing the cell to use energy and do work. This is done by carrier proteins.
Sodium-Potassium Pump
Active transport of sodium and potassium across the membrane, exchanging Na for K.
Membrane Potential
Voltage across a membrane
Electrochemical Gradient
The combination of the chemical force(concentration gradient) and the electrical force(the effect the membrane potential has on the ion's movement).
Electrogenic Pump
A transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane. e.g. sodium-potassium pump
Proton Pump
Actively transports protons out of the cell in fungi, plants, and bacteria.
Cotransport
An ATP-powered pump that transports a specific solute that indirectly drives the active transport of another solute.
Exocytosis
The cell secretes certain molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane
Endocytosis
The cell takes in molecules by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane .
Ligands
Any molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site on another molecule.
Phagocytosis
The cell engulfs a large particle.
Pinocytosis
The cell engulfs droplets of extracellular fluid that has dissolved molecules
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
Allows the cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.