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47 Cards in this Set

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A ___________ is a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together.
polymer
How are polymers formed?

___________: small molecules covalently bonded together to make a polymer and H20 (water).
condensation
How are polymers formed?

___________: breaks apart polymers, by adding H20.
hydrolysis
Anything that possesses all the characteristics of life.
organism
Carbon:

4 _________ available for __________.
electrons

bonding
Carbon:

Forms 4 covalent bonds:
single bond, double bond, and triple bond.
Chemical + electrons =
ability
Center of an atom. Contains protons and neutrons.
nucleus
Positively charged particle.
protons
Particles with no charge.
neutron
Extremely small, negatively charged particles in the region of space surrounding the nucleus.
electrons
Breaks apart polymers, by adding H20.
hydrolysis
Large organic compounds.
biomolecules
Proteins are examples of ________ that are found in organisms.
biomolecules
Compounds that have the same chemical formula but different three-dimensional structures are called ___________.
isomers
Measure of how acidic or basic a solution is.
pH
ph scale = ____________
0-14
Acids and Bases:

7= _______
<7= _______
>7= ________
neutral

acid

base
Any substance that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in water.
acid
Any substance that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in water.
base
Atoms of same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
isotopes
Refer to isotope by total # of __________ and ___________ in nucleus.
protons

neutrons
Six protons, six neutrons.
carbon
Carbon-13: ___________ protons, __________ neutrons.
six

seven
Useful to scientists because of ______________________ caused by instability of nucleus.
radioactivity
Culculation # of molecules of an atom is . . .
4 elements

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
___________ energy level = _________ electrons max
1st

2
2nd _______ level = 8 _________ max
energy

electrons
3rd energy ___________ = 18 electrons __________
level

max
___________ levels filled __________, then move to next energy level.
inner

first
Atoms have ________ because protons = electrons.
no charge
Large biomolecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen, a little oxygen.
lipids
Fats, oils, waxes, and steroids are all __________.
lipids
If each carbon in the chain is bonded to other carbons by single bonds, the fatty acid is said to be _____________.
saturated
If a double bond is present in the cahin, the fatty acid is _____________.
unsaturated
1827, Robert ____________: observed pollen grains in water moving about.
Brown
__________ movement of atoms and molecules.
random
_______________ of gases, liquids, some solids.
characteristic
_____________ Energy + energy in motion.
kinetic
Particles of matter are in ____________ motion and _________ with each other.
constant

collide
The condition in which there is continuous movement but no overall concentration change is called ____________.
dynamic equilibrium
An atom (or group of atoms) that gain or loses electrons.
ion
Why do atoms form on ion?
Some atoms combine by gaining or losing electrons in their outer energy levels.
The net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
diffusion
The process of diffusion is ________ and relies on _________ movement.
slow

random
Three key factors affect the rate of diffusion: ____________, _____________, and ____________.
concentration

temperature

pressure
Ratio of CH0 biomolecule, acid vs. base
(OH vs. H)