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93 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Substance that can't be broken down into simplier substances
Element
How many elements occur naturally on Earth
90
What elements make up more than 96% of the mass of a human?
Carbon Nitrogen & Oxygen
Presented in living things in small amounts yet play a vital role in maintaining healthy cells
Trace Elements
Smallest particle of an element that still retains all the characteristics of that element
Atom
Center of an Atom
Nucleus
What are inside a nucleus?
Protons and Neutrons
What type of charge does a nucleus have?
Positive
What type of charge do protons have?
Positive
What type of charge do neutrons have?
Neutral
What's the connection between thecolumns on the periodic table?
Based Upon # of Electrons
What's the connection between the rows on the periodic table?
# of Levels
What forms a cloud around the nucleus?
Electrons
What's the relationship between protons and electrons?
Atoms have the same number of each
What is the area where electrons travel called?
Energy Levels
What is the maximum number of electrons the second energy level can hold?
8
What's the maximum number of electrons the first energy level can hold?
2
What's the maximum number of electrons the third energy level can hold?
18
What are isotopes?
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
What is a compound?
a substance that is composed of atoms of 2 or more different elements that are chemically combined
What type of bond forms when two atoms share electrons?
Covalent Bond
Sugars, Fats, Proteins, and Water have what type of bonds?
Covalent Bonds
What is a molecule?
A group of atoms held togetehr by covalent bonds and have no overall charge
What does the Octet Rule say?
When atoms having more than 1 energy level combine their outer energy levels, they must have a total of 8 electrons in their outer ring
What is an ionic bond?
An attractive force between two ions of opposite charge
What tpe of compound or bond is more prevelant: Ionic or Covalent?
Covalent
What is a charge particle called?
Ion
Are chemical reactions rare within a cell?
No, chemical reactions happen often within a cell
Chemical Reactions within an organism are also referred to as the organisms _______.
Metabolism
What name is given to a substance that undergoes a chemical reaction?
Reactant
What is the name given to a substance that is formed by a chemical reaction?
Product
What is a mixture?
a combination of substances in which the individucal components retain their own properties
What is a solution?
A mixture in which one or more substances are distributed evenlyy in anotehr substance.
Which can settle out...a solution or a mixture?
Mixture
What is a suspension?
Mixing two things together that will always separate
What increases a solution's concentration?
The more solute that is dissolved in a given amount of solvent
What does pH measure?
How acidic or basic a solution is
If a substance's pH is below 7 what is it called?
Acidic
If a substance's pH is above 7 what is it called?
Base
Any substance that forms hydroxide ions in water is considered a _____.
Base
Where are electrons located in an atom?
Outside the nucleus in levels
What are carbohydrates composed of?
C, H, and O
with a 1:2:1 ratio
What are the functions of carbohydrates?
Quick Energy (mono)
Storage (poly)
Carbohydrates are the building blocks for what?
Monosacharides and Disacharides
Of what are Lipids composed?
C, H, and O
What are the building blocks for lipids?
1 glycerol and 3 Fatty Acids
What are the functions of lipids?
Energy, Insulation, Structure, and Regulation
Of what are proteins made?
C, H, O, N, (S)
What are the builiding blocks for proteins?
Aminio Acids build to peptide and this becomes polypeptides
What are the functions of Proteins?
Regulation, Structure, Contraction, Transport, Protection, Energy
Of what are Nucleic Acids made?
C, H, O, N, P
What are the builiding blocks for Nucleic Acids?
Nucleotide
1- Phosphate
2- 5C Sugar
3- Nitrogen Base
Whater the the functions of Nucleic Acids?
Regulation
Heredity
Protein Synthesis
What's the difference between a hydrogen bond and a covalent bond?
Hydrogen bonds hold larger molecules such as proteins and covalent bonds hold together sugars and things
Water is a Universal _____ for living things
Solvent
List the 7 Functions of Water
1. Universal Solvent
2. Material Transport
3. Polarity
4. Hydrogen Bond
5. Capillary Action
6. Resists Temp Changes
7. Expands when it freezes
What is a polar molecule?
a molecule with an unequal distribution of charge
Is a Hydrogen Bond weak or strong?
Weak
What is diffusion?
The net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Who was Robert Brown?
He used a microscope to examine pollen grains in water...Brownian Motion
Why does diffusion occur?
Because of a random movement of particles
Is diffusion a fast or slow process?
Slow
What three factors effect the rate of diffusion?
Concentration, temperature, and pressure
What is Dynamic Equillibrium?
When there is continuous movement but no overall change in concentration
What is a concentration gradient?
The difference in concentration of a substance across space
Name one way in which cells move substances in and out of the cell
Diffusion
What trait allows water to travel to the tops of trees?
Capillary Action
Metabolism is the combination of what?
Anabolism and Catabolism
Anobolism controls....
Growth and Building
Catabolism controls....
Digestion and Breaking Down
Carbon is special because...
It has 4 electrons available for bonding,it can bond with other atoms as well as other elements
How is a triple bond shown?
Three bars drawn
What is an isomer?
a compound that has the same simple formula but different three dimensional structures
What is a polymer?
a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together
What is Hydrolisis?
A process by which polymers can be broken apart
What is a carbohydrate?
an organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxyygen with a ration of about twon hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom
List 3 important functions of lipids in living organisms
energy storage, insulation, and protective coatings
What is a monosacharide?
simplest type of carbohydrate and a simple sugar
What is a disacharide?
This occurs when two monosaccharide molecules link together to form a two sugar carbohydrate
What is a lipid?
organic compound ...commonly called fats or oils...insoluble in water...non polar molecules
True or False
Proteins are essential to all life
What is a protein?
a large complex polymer composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and ussually sulfur
What are the basic building blocks of proteins?
Amino Acids
How many common amino acids are there?
20
What is a peptide bond?
The covalent bond formed between aminio acids
What is an enzyme?
A protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction
What is a nucleic Acid?
a complex macromolecule that stores cellular inofrmation in the forma of a code
What is a nucleotide?
carbon,hydrogen, ovygen, nitogen and phosophorus atoms arrange in theree groups: base, simple sugar, and phosphate group.
DNA is an acronym for what words?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
What is the funtion of DNA?
DNA forms the genetic code that determines how an organism looks and acts
RNA is an acronym for what words?
Ribonucleic Acid
What is the function of RNA
It creates a copy of DNA for use in making proteins
What are the basic building blocks for all matter
Atoms