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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
disease cannot be caught
5 non-infectious diseases
cancer- skin cancer
Deficiancy disease- lacking vitamins or minerals
Hereditary- Down Syndrome, Cystic Fibrosis
Deginerative Diseases- worn out joints (Arthritis), heart
Enviromental- Asbestos
spread easily
7 ways to get an infectious disease
Eating Food
How do you clean water so it's not carrying anything infectious?
clean with chlorine
Ways to get infectious diseases by contact
Indirect Contact- drink after someone, pencil in mouth
Direct Contact- Shake hand. more flu and cold spread, also Mono, Pinkeye, and Hep B
Infectious diseases by Transfussion
blood transfusions- AIDS, hepatitis, malaria, Lyme disease
Infectious Vectors
Organisms that cause, not carry diseases
Aedes Misquito- yellow fever
Anopholes Misquito- malaria
Dog tick- RMSF
Deer tick- Lyme disease
Tsetse Fly- Africa Sleeping Sickness
Rat Flea- Black plague
Lice- (clean hair) Typhus fever
Humans- Typhoid Fever- Typhoid Mary and tuberculosis
Infectious Pathogens
Disease causing organisms
Viruses- Pnuoemia
Bacteria-Strept Throat, Staph, Ecoli
Protozoa- one that causes malaria
Spirochetes- cause Syphillis
Rickettsiaa- Rocky Mt. Spider Fever
Prions- cause mad cow, has nothing to do with living things is a protein
Viroid- cause plant diseases
Mycoplasmas- cause form of pnuoemia
Fungi- ringworm and athletes foot
Edward Jenner
made 1st vaccine. observations on dairy maids. put pus from cow pox on boy open wound then put small pox pus on as vaccine.
dangers- severe or fatal cases, contagious until completely healed
centers for disease control
World health Organization
treated small pox by using pus from small pox
made vaccine against anthrax and rabies (hydrophobia)(attacks nervous system. less dangerous if rubbed into a wound rather than breathe.
What was pasteur's experiment?
infected 14 rabbits with rabbies. killed one per day take out spinal cord and dry it. take spinal cord from first rabit and make vacine. give shot to next rabbit. gives it weak pathogens.
studied TMV. used clay filters to catch bacteria. First to see how a virus works- could not see it in clay filters
tobacco mosaic virus. called mosaic b/c caused yellow spots
named viruses. means poison. used clay filters
Louis Pasteur
develpoed 2nd vaccine against anthrax. developed 3rd vaccine against rabies. rabbits tested
disease locally (colds) always around (Ebola disease)
large portion of population has dissease- Flu, measles
worldwide epidemic (1918 Influenze 20 million ppl died)
main ways to control infectious viruses in the past
Quarintine. not involving vectors is vaccine
study of Viruses
Wendell Stanley. (ex.)
first to 'see' a virus. TMV crystal- electron microscope
Jonas Salk
developed first polio vaccine. used 'killed' viruses. did not give complete immunity. could be a carrier. given a shot
Albert Sabin
oral polio vaccine. used live viruses but less virulent. complete immunity. protected the person and prevented them from becoming a carrier. did not require a booster shot. it was given on a sugar cube or in a syrup
How do viruses cause disease?
killing cells- lytic cycle
Changing the rate of mitosis-warts, tumor, cancer
Virus structure (3)
Envelope- surrounds the capsid. composed of proteins, lypids. and glocoproteins
Capsid- protein coat
Core-contains nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA (never both)
bacteria killers
Rodlike (TMV helical)
Polyhedral (manysided-spheric)
usually each type of virus only infects a specific host
specific virus
infect almost every kind of organisms from bacteria to mammals
Lytic Cycle: and order of stages (5)
cause cell to lyse (burst)
Replication and synthesis

Lysogenic cycle and ex.
latent period.
virus inserts itself into the host chromo (provirus).
when chromo duplicates so does the virus.

Type 1 Herpes suplex binds in nerve cells on the face. sunshine or stree can make them become active.
Outer Body Defenses
Skin- dead. main. waterproof
Hair- in nostrils. and mucus helps trap particles
Mucus- in respritory system (nose, trechea, lungs)traps.
Cila- move the mucus with its particles to the throat
Tears- protects the eyes by wash, salt, and lysozyme
Acids in stomach- pathogens are destroyed. some may escape b/c protective covering
Inner Body Defenses (4)
Liver- clean blood (filter)
Spleen- filters blood
White blood cells- (phagocytes) engulf pathogens in liver, spleen, blood, and lymphnodes
Antibodies- made in responce to foriegn antibodies
Kinds of Immunity
naturally aquired passive
naturally aquired active
Artificially aquired passive
artificially aquired active
naturally aquired passive
from man. body makes the antibodies. temporary.
naturally aquired active
recovering from a disease. you make antibodies. more or less permenent
artificially aquired passive
from a serum contains antibodies. some other animal makes the antibodies. requires booster shots (tetnus)
artificially aquired active
from a vaccine. you make the antibodies. contains dead or weakened pathogens.
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
1st to see bacteria. observed the bacteria in the plaque of his teeth.
Louis pasteur
father of bacteriology. first to study it extensivly. swan necked flasks
Roert Koch
developed the germ theory of infectious disease
Julius Richard Petri
developed the petri dish for growing cultures of bacteria
The basic shapes of bacteria
bacillus- rods
spirillum- coiled
Filamentous- thread like
coccus- shperical
coccus prefixes (6)
coccus- 1
diplicocci- 2
staphylococci- pyramid
streptococci- chain
sarcina- cube of 8
tetrad- 4
Characteristics of bacteria (5)
-lack of nucleus (prokaryote)
-chromo has single circle of DNA (plasmid)
-reproduce by binary fission
-mvmt, flagella spin and cause mvmt
-pili are outgrowth that allow bacteria to attach to other cells
Structure of bacteria (4)
-cell wall surrounds cell membrane. gram pos. and neg.
-cell membrane
-capsule, gel like layer
-endospore, surrounds the plasmid and a bit of cytoplasm (avoids harsh conditions)
Conditions necessary for bacterial growth (4)
Food- parasites on living things and saprophytes, decomposers on dead things
Moisture- dry foods never spoil
Oxygen- aerobes require oxygen. anaerobes do not
Right temp.-those that ause disease in people grow best at basic temp 98.6
10 ways to control bacteria
-drying- no moisture. food never spoils
-salt- removes moisture and dries out bacteria (slug)
-canning- heat, pressure, no oxy unless anaerobic
-pasteurization-heating enough to kill all pathogenic bacteria
-sterilization-heating enough o kill all bacteria
-ultra violet light-grocery store meat counter, barber shop, goggles cabinent
-sugar-used like salt to remove moisture(jams)
-radiation- kills all that can be stored w/o refridge
-chemical preservatives(BHT)
-fever- heats up the body and bacteria die
only disease to become extinct because of human efforts
when are tears produced?
all the time
2 viral diseases
polio, measles, flu, cold
serum vs. vaccine
S- contains antibodies
V- weakened or dead pathogens
how can you tell if someone has had smallpox?
scar on left arm from pox shot
most important function of bacteria
reason bacteria is important to us
flavor on cheese, milk, yogurt
very first vaccine
why do bacteria not grow well on surface of things?
gram positive
gram negitive
pos- stained purple
neg- stained pink
2 main parts of virus
capsid and core
-WHO wanted to wipeout smallpox
-last case of smallpox
-pandemic of flu
what does vaccine, virus, and influenza mean?
-influence of the planets