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41 Cards in this Set

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3 characteristics of POPULATION
1. A group of organisms
2. of the same species
3. of a given area
Biotic Potential (def)
acheiving the maximum growth of a pop
Factors that affect BIOTIC POTENTIAL
1. Age @ 1st reproduction
2. Frequency of reproduction
3. Litter size
4. Length of reproductive span
5. Death rate
5 parts AFLLD
"S" curve
aka logistic has environmental resistance
Carrying Capacity
the environment can olny allow a limited amount of pops.
Factors that provide environmental resistance
density dependent- depends on the size of the pop ex. flu or disease
Density independent- affect on a pop regardless of size ex. natural disasters
Survivorship curve
take the individual and see how long their lifespan is
a step above a pop, involves all pops in a given area
Gause's competitive exclusion principle
no 2 species can inhabit the same area @ the same time and have the same niche
includes all aspects of life for one species, its habitat, all physical factors, and all interactions with community such as predation competition and parasitian
Resource partitioning
reduces competition b/w species, leads to adaptations they adjust to meake sure they arent excluded
Difference b/w interspecific and intraspecific competition
interspecific- b/w species
intraspecific- b/w one pop
Community interactions
b/w pop are the forces of natural selection, shaping the bodies and behavior of the species involved overtime (evo, coevo)
Predator vs. Prey
Strategies for prey
Startle coloration-scare off enough time to get away
Warning coloration-bright colors
Mimicry-copy cat of warning colorations
two species taht have a long term close relationship
types of symbiosis
1 pop has a (+) outcome/ other has a (-)
ex. fleas and worms
ecto (out) and endo (in) body
1 pop benefits and other gets nothing
ex. poison ivy growing on a tree, tree doesnt get hurt and ivy has a home to grow
both pop have benefits
What are the functions of the urinary system?
filter the blood and produce urine
functions of the kidneys?
regulate-water content
-ph level
-ion levels (electrolytes)
-nutrient content
-02 level
Excrete-urea and other wastes
Why is excretion of nitrogenous wastes necessary
b/c its toxic
Where do nitrogen wastes come from?
excess amino acids (protein)
Why do birds and reptiles convert their nitrogenous waste to uric acid form?
b/c the eggs would be poisened
birds can't fly with full bladders so they have concentrated urine to not lose alot of water
Whats the difference b/w ureter and the urethra?
Ureter-carries urine from kidneys to the bladder
Urethra-expells urine from the bladder
why are females more susceptible to bladder infections than males are?
Women have a shorter urethra and more susceptible to bacteria
the functional unit of the kidney, composed of glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, convoluted tubule, and the collecting duct
Function of the glomerulus
blood filter
function of Bowman's capsule
collects what is filtered
function of proximal tubule
function of loop of henle tubule
function of distal tubule
secretion of urine
function of collecting duct
About how often is your entire blood volume filtered each day?
350 ml
What happens if it was not filtered?
die of poisoning
about 99% of the water that is removed from the blood (the filtrate) gets returned to the blood. How?
reabsorbed by proximal and loop in order to not get dehydrated
What substances should normally be presented in the urine?
water (1%), wastes, urea, minerals, drugs
What should NOT be present in urine
blood cells, proteins, ammonia
How does alcohol affect kidney function
ADH hormone makes your brain think your water level is too high and you urinate alot and you lose alot of water and become dehydrated
What is hemodialysis and how does it work?
a machine that cleans out blood when your kidney doesnt work