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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
land plants evolved from?
green algae called charophyceans
what are the four key traits land plants share with the common ancestor?
-rod shaped complexes for celluose synthesis
-peroxisome enzymes-structure of flagellated sperm
-formation of phragmoplast
green algae that is the closest relative to land plants.
a layer of durable polyer that prevents exposed zygotes from drying up
land plants posses a set of ___
dervied terrestrial adaptations
many adaptions of land plants
emerged after they diverged from common ancestor charophycean
the five key traits that plants have that there ancestor didnt?
-apical meristems
-altheration of generations
walled spores produced in sporangia
-multicellular gametangia
-multicellular dependent embryos
is a tissue in plants consisting of undifferentiated cells
alternation of generations
is a reproductive cycle of certain plants, fungi, and protists.
fossils indicate plants were on land ___ years ago
475 million
land plants can be informally grouped based on the presence or absence of ?
vascular tissue
vascular issue
is a complex tissue found in vascular plants, meaning that it is composed of more than one cell type.
bryophytes are represented by three phyla which are?
liverworts - hepatophyta
hornworts - anthocerophyta
mosses - bryophyta
in all three bryophyte phyla
gametophytes are larger and longer living than sporophytes
Describe the life cycle of a moss.
The life of a moss starts from a haploid spore, which germinates to produce a protonema, which is either a mass of filaments or thalloid (flat and thallus-like). This is a transitory stage in the life of a moss. From the protonema grows the gametophore ("gamete-bearer") that is differentiated into stems and leaves ('microphylls'). From the tips of stems or branches develop the sex organs of the mosses. The female organs are known as archegonia (sing. archegonium) and are protected by a group of modified leaves known as the perichaetum (plural, perichaeta). The archegonia have necks called venters which the male sperm swim down. The male organs are known as antheridia (singular antheridium) and are enclosed by modified leaves called the perigonium (plural, perigonia).
three things about bryophtye gametophytes?
-produced flagellated sperm in antheridia
-produce ova in archegonia
-generally form ground-hugging carpets and are at most only a few cells thick.
two things about bryophte sporophytes?
-grow out of archegonia
-consist of a foot, a seta, and a sporangium
peat moss
can be used as a fuel source, plays an important role in the carbon cycle
brpyophyte and brophyte like plants were?
the prevailent vegetation during the first 100 million years of plant evolution
sporophytes of seedless vascular ?
are the larger generation
vascular plants have two types of vasucular tissue :
xylem and phloem
-conducts most of the water and minerals
-includes dead cells called tracheids
-distributes sugars, amino acids, and other organic products
- consisting of living cells
-are organs that anchor vascular plants
-enable vascular plants to absorb water and nutrients from the soil
are organs that increase the surface area of vascular plants, allowing more solar energy for photosynthesis
what are the two types of leaves?
microphylls-leaves with a single vein
megaphylls-leaves with a highly branched vascular system
the two phyla of seedless vascular plants
lycophyta - include club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts
pterophyta - including ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns and their relatives
ferns are the most
diverse seedless vascular plants
the ancestors of modern lycophytes, horsetails,and ferns
produced most of the coal that humans now use