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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Chemical Evolution
Simple chemical compounds in the atmosphere & oceans combined to form larger and more complex molecules, which led to the origin of life
What two major events happened as the Earth began to cool?
1. Water rained out of the atmosphere to form the first ocean
2. Many volcanoes existed, which spewed volcanic gas into the atmosphere
What is the important characteristic of the outer-most shell of the valence electrons?
The number of unpaired electrons (or valence) is very important for chemical bonding patterns.
Describe covalent bonding patterns
Valence electrons are shared between 2 atoms, which bind together to form molecules; equal sharing forms non-polar molecules/ unequal = polar.
The degree with which atom's share their valence electrons in covalent bonds.
Describe ionic bonds
Valence electrons are completely transferred from one atoms to another; ions form, bonding them together.
What is the difference between cations and anions?
Cations- Positively charged ions

Anions- Negatively charged ions
In a molecule, what dicates the behavior and function?
The overall shape (bond angles).
Molecular Formula
The number and type of atoms in a molecule.
Structural Formula
Which atoms are bonded together; single, double, and triple bonds are shown by single, double, and triple dashes.
Molecular Weight
The sum of the mass numbers of all the atoms in a molecule.
The number of moles of a substance per Liter.
Chemical Reaction
An event in which one substance is combined with others or broken down into another substance.
T/F Changing the concentration of the reactants or of the products can disturb the chemical equilibrium.
Eplain the difference between endo and exothermic reactions.
Endothermic- Heat is absorbed in the chemical process; driven to right
Exothermic- Heat is released; equilibrium driven to left.
The capacity to do work or supply heat; exists either as stored potential energy or active motion.
Thermal Energy
The kinetic energy of molecular motion.
The measure of how much thermal energy its molecules pocess.
The transferrence of thermal energy from one molecule to another.
What happens when an electron 'falls' into a lower electron shell?
It experiences a loss of potential energy because it uses some it its kinetic energy in the fall.
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy is converted from one form to another; it can neither be created or destroyed.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy always increases in a closed system.
Chemical Energy
The potential energy stored in chemical bonds.
What makes reactions spontaneous?
1. Products have lower potential energy than reactants (exothermic) (H)
2. Products are less ordered than reactants (increased entropy) (S)
Gibbs Free-energy change
Delt G = Delta H - T Delta S, where T stands for the temperature in Kelvin; if G is greater than 0, the reaction is non-spontaneous; if 0, there is equilibrium.
Why is sunlight important for the theory of chemical evolution?
Energy from photons can break molecules apart by knocking electrons out of the outer shell of atoms.
Free Radicals
The resulting atoms, which have unpaired electrons and are extremely unstable.
What 2 things can speed up reaction times?
1. Higher temperature

2. Greater concentration
Explain the difference between reducton and oxidation.
Reduction is the gaining of an electron and oxidation is the loss of an electron; OIL RIG --> Oxidation is loss, Reduction is gain (often adding/losing Hs)
Why does water have such a high specific heat?
It takes an extraordinarily large amount of energy to break the hydrogen bonds.
Specific Heat
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree Celcius
Explain the difference between acids and bases
Acids give up a proton during chemical reactions; Bases acquire a proton during chemical reactions
PH is determined by -log[H+]
Air (dry)
Table Salt
Water (s)
Water (l)