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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the basic unit of matter?
Atom
In an atom, what has a positive charge and has a number that equals the number of neutrons?
Proton
What has no charge?
Neutron
What has a negative charge, is in constant motion around the nucleus, and is 1/1840 the mass of a proton ?
Electron
Atoms that are of the same element but have a different number of neutrons is a what?
Isotope
What is a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom?
Element
The combination of two or more elements in definite proportions is a what?
Compound
What is formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another?
Ionic bond
What is formed when one or more electrons are shared between atoms?
Covalent bond
What is the smallest unit of compund?
Molecule
What is the total number of protons and neutrons?
Atomic Mass
What is due to an uneven distribution of electrons in some compounds?
Polarity
What is the attraction between molecules of the like substances?
Cohesion
What is the attraction between molecules of different substances?
Adhesion
What is not chemically combined and is composed of two or more substances?
Mixture
What is composed of a solute and a solvent and are evenly distributed?
Solution
What is the substance taht is dissolved?
Solute
What is the substance in which the solute dissolves?
Solvent
What is a mixture in which substances do not dissolve in water and may not be evenly distributed?
Suspension
What is the attraction between the pos. and neg. ends of water molecules?
Hydrogen bonds
What is a compound that forms hydrogen ions in solution (H+)?
Acid
What is a compound that produces hydroxide ions in solution (OH-)?
Base
What is a weak acid or base that prevents sharp changes in pH?
Buffer
What are formed by the process of polymerization?
Macromolecules
What are small molecules that join together to form polymers?
Monomers
What are compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in 1:2:1 ratio?
Carbohydrates
What are simple sugars?
Monosaccharides
What are formed from many monosaccharides?
Polysaccharides
What is a polysaccharide that provides plants structure?
Cellulose
What are made mostly from carbon and hydrgoen in very long chains and are fats, oils, and waxes that do not dissolve well in water?
*They can also be used to store energy.
Lipids
What are macromolecules that contain C, H, O, N, and P and examples are RNA and DNA?
Nucleic Acid
What are made from amino acids, contain N, C, H, and O, control rates of reactions, help build bones and muscle, and some help fight disease?
Proteins
What has amino group, acarbowl group, and an R group?
Amino acid
What is a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals that involoves the breaking of bonds?
Chemical reaction
What are the elements taht enter into a chemical reaction?
Reactants
What are the elements or compounds that are produced by a chemical reaction?
Products
What is the energy needed to get a reaction started?
Activation energy
What are proteins that act as biological catalysts located in and out of the cells?
Enzyme
What is the substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction and lowers the activation energy?
Catalyst
What is the reactants of enzyme-catalyed reactions?
Substrate
What are the factors of enzyme activity?
*pH
*temperature
*proteins (that turn enzymes on and off)