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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ionic Bond
Electrons are donated from one atom to another
Covalent Bond
Two atoms share a pair of electrons
Polar vs. Nonpolar
Polar: pair of electrons are shared unequally
Electrostatic attraction
an attractive force that occurs between oppositely charged atoms
Molecule
Cluster of atoms held together by covalent bonds
Hydrogen Bond
Very weak, easily broken by random thermal motions
In water, these bonds are responsible for the "liquid" state
Hydronium (H3O+)
Formed when substances (acids) lose a proton in water
Acids
substances that release protons in water
pH
concentration of hydronium.
pH7= 10^-7 moles/liter hydronium
Bases
substances that raise the concentration of hydroxyl ions (OH-), by removing protons when mixed with water
SMALL UNITS: sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, nucleotides
BIG UNITS: polysaccharides, fats and lipids and membranes, proteins, nucleic acids
formula of sugars/carbohydrates
(CH2O)n. n can be 1 (monosaccharides), 3, 4, 5, or 6 (glucose)
polysaccharides- how big?
can contain up to 1,000's of monosaccharides
condensation reaction
a water molecule is expelled
hydrolysis
a water molecule is consumed
components of fatty acids
hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tails
unsaturated fatty acid
bent tail where two carbons are double bonded instead of being saturated with hydrogens
saturated fatty acid
straight tail. all carbon atoms in tail have two hydrogens (max)
amphipathic
quality of fatty acids- both hydrophilic and hydrophobic
lipids
fatty acids and their derivatives- insoluble in water
what are membranes made out of?
phospholipids mostly, proteins, and cholesterol
structure of amino acids
H
I
H2N(amino)--C--COOHcarboxyl
I
R side chain
N-terminus vs. C-terminus
N terminus is the end of an amino acid where the amino group is, C terminus is the end where the carboxyl group is
between where do amino acids connect and what is the bond called
amino group and carboxyl group
peptide bond
Ribonucleic acids (RNA)
string of nucleotides ( A G C or U) formed with ribose. single strand
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
string of nucleotides (A G C T) formed with deoxyribose, double strand
what weaker bonds determine the shape of a macromolecule?
hydrogen bonds and electrostatic attractions and van der waals
Van der Waals attraction
when two atoms come close together, the fluctuating electric charges create electrical attraction