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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are the 2 different levels that respiration occurs?
the level of the cell and the level of the organism
what processes does respiration include?
ventilation, external respiratin, and internal respiration
what does the respiratory system consist of?
the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs
What makes up the paranasal sinuses?
the maxillary, frontal, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal sinuses
What is the function of the paranasal sinuses?
to reduce the weight of the skull, to pruduce mucus, and to influence the quality of the voice by acting as resonating chambers
what is the pharynx?
a passageway for both the digestive system and the respiratory system
what is the function of the larynx?
to keep particles from entering the threachea; also houses the vocal cords
how is pitch controlled?
by changing the tension on the vocal cords
laryngitis?
inflammation of the mucus epithelium of the true vocal cords
what is the function of the C-shaped rings found in the trachea?
these rings protect the trachea, make it flexible, and keep it from collapsing or over-expanding
structure of the bronchial tree?
after entering the lungs: the 2 primary bronchi branch many times to form the bronchial tree, primary bronchi divided into secondary bronchi as they enter the lung, the branching coninues and eventualy tunrs into bronchioles, each bronchiole divdes into alveolar ducts whichin turn end in clusters called alveoli
each lung is composed of_____ which contain _____?
- lobules
-air passages, alveoli, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and connective tissue
pleura?
a serous membrane that lines the pleural caivty
surfactant?
keeps the alveoli from sticking to each other so that they do not collapse when internal air pressure is low
inspiration?
inspiration is when the volume of the thoracic cavity increases and the air pressure inside the lungs decreases
expiration?
expiration is when the volume of the thoracic cavoty decreases and the air pressure inside the lungs increases
list 2 reasons why the lungs would collapse?
-elastic recoil caused by the elastic fibers in the connective tissue of the lungs
-surface tension of the fluid that lines the alveoli
surface tension?
exists because molecules of water attract each other, tending to form a droplet
spirometry?
the process of measuring volumes of air that move into an dout of the respiratory system
list the 4 pulmonary volumes?
tidal volume, inspiratiry reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume
tidal volume?
the volume of air inspired or expired during quiet breathing
inspiratory reserve volume?
the amount of air that can be inspired forcefully after inspration of the normal tidal volume
expiratory reserve volume?
the amount of air that can be easily expired forcefull after expiration of te normal tidal volume
residual volume?
the volume of air still remaining in the respiratory passages and lungs after a maximum expiration
pulmonary capacity?
the sum of 2 or more pulmonary volumes
vital capacity?
the sum of the inspiratory reserve vlume, tidal volume, and expiratory volume
inspiratory capacity?
the tidal volume plus the inspiratory reserve volume
functional residual capacity?
the expiratory reserve volume plus the residual volume
forced expiratory vital capacity?
the rate at which lung volume changes during direct measurement of the vital capacity