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17 Cards in this Set

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Stephen Fyler 11.1

subunit of a nucleic acid formed from a simple sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
Stephen Fyler 11.1

nucleotide
Stephen Fyler 11.1

a carbon ring structure that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen.
Stephen Fyler 11.1

nitrogenous base
Stephen Fyler 11.1

shape of a DNA molecule formed when two twisted DNA strands are coiled into a springlike structure and held together by hydrogen bonds between the bases (similar to a twisted zipper)
Stephen Fyler 11.1

double helix
Stephen Fyler 11.1

process in which chromosomal DNA is copied before mitoses or meiosis
Stephen Fyler 11.1

DNA replication
Stephen Fyler 11.2

a large molecule formed from smaller subunits that are bonded together
Stephen Fyler 11.2

polymer
Stephen Fyler 11.2

brings instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the cell's factory floor, the cytoplasm
Stephen Fyler 11.2

messenger RNA (mRNA)
Stephen Fyler 11.2

binds to the mRNA and uses the instrcutions to assemble the amino acids in the correct order
Stephen Fyler 11.2

ribosomal RNA
Stephen Fyler 11.2

delivers amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled into a protein
Stephen Fyler 11.2

transfer RNA
Stephen Fyler 11.2

process in the cell nucleus where enzymes make an RNA copy of a DNA strand
Stephen Fyler 11.2

transcription
Stephen Fyler 11.2

set of three nitrogenous bases that represents an amino acid
Stephen Fyler 11.2

codon
Stephen Fyler 11.2

process of converting information in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in a protein
Stephen Fyler 11.2

translation
Stephen Fyler 11.3

diseases believed to be caused by changes in the genes that control the cell cycle
Stephen Fyler 11.3

cancer
Stephen Fyler 11.3

any change in the DNA sequence
Stephen Fyler 11.3

mutation
Stephen Fyler 11.3

a change in a single base pair of DNA
Stephen Fyler 11.3

point mutation
Stephen Fyler 11.3

a mutation in which a single base is added to or deleted from DNA
Stephen Fyler 11.3

frameshift mutation
Stephen Fyler 11.3

mutation that occurs at the chromosome level resulting in changes in the gene distribution to gametes during meiosis
Stephen Fyler 11.3

chromosomal mutation
Stephen Fyler 11.3

any agent that can cause a change in DNA
Stephen Fyler 11.3

mutagen