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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
adenine
a nitrogen-containing pase that is a component of a nucleotide
anticodon
a region of tRNA consisting of three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA
base-pairing rule
in DNA, cytosine pairs with guanine and adenind with thymine; in RNA, adenine pairs with uracil
codon
a group of three sequential nitrogen bases of an mRNA molecule
complimentary base pairs
a set of two proteins that normally pairs with one another according to the base-pair rule
cytosine
a nitrogen-containing base, a pyrimidine of DNA and RNA
deoxyribose
the sugar molecules in a DNA nucleotide
DNA polymerase
an enzyme that binds to the separated strands of DNA and assembles dach strand's compliment in replication
double helix
the shape ot a DNA's strand
genetic code
triplets of nucleotides in mRNA that determine the sequence of amino acids in proteins
guanine
a nitrogen-containing base that is a component of a nucleotide
helocase
an enzyme that separates DNA strands before replication
messenger RNA (mRNA)
the type of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the rebosomes
mutation
a change in DNA
nitrogen-containing base
a DNA molecule containing nitrogen, a sugar molecule, and a phosphate group
promoter
a nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule that, when attached to an RNA polymerase molecule, will initiate transcription of a specific structural gene
protein synthesis
the formation of proteins using information coded on DNA and carried by RNA
purine
an organic molecule that has a double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms
pyrimidline
an organic molecule that has a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms
replication
the process by which DNA copies itself during interphase
replication fork
the points at which the DNA strands separate during replication
ribose
the five-carbon sugar in RNA
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
the type of RNA found in a ribose
RNA poymerase
the primary transcription enzyme
start codon
the codon AUG which engages a ribosome to start translating an mRNA molecule
stop codon
causes the ribosome to stop translatingmRNA; UAA UAG UGA
termination signal
a specific sequence of events that marks the end of a gene in eukaryots
thymine
a nitrogen-containing base, on component of a nucleotide
transcription
the process in which RNA is made from DNA
transfer RNA (tRNA)
the type of RNA that carries amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes
translation
the process of converting the fenetic code in RNA into the amino acid seuence that makes up a protein
uracil
a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA