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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
a sequence of three bases in transfer RNA that is complementary to the three bases of codon of messenger RNA
Barr body
an inactiviated X chromosome in cells of female mammals which have two X chromosomes normally appears as a dark spot in the nucleus
a sequence of three bases of messenger RNA that specifies a particular amino acid to be incorporated into a protein; certain codons also signal the beginning or end of protein systhesis
deletion mutation
a mutation in which one or more pairs of nucleotides are removed from a gene
a segment of DNA in a eukaryotic gene that codes for amino acids in a protein
genetic code
the collection of codons of mRNA, each of which directs the incorporation of a particular amino acid into a protein during protein synthesis
a unit of heredity that encodes the information needed to specify the amino acid sequence of proteins and hence particular traits; a functional segment of DNA located at a particular place on a chromosome
insertion mutation
a mutation in which one or more pairs of nucleotides are inserted inot a gene
a segment of DNA in a eukaryotic gene that does not code for amino acids in a protein
messager RNA
mRNA a strand of RNA complementary to the DNA of a gene, that conveys the genetic information in DNA to the ribosomes to be used during protein synthesis; sequences of three bases(codons) in mRNA specify particular amino acids to be incorporated into a protein
a change in the base sequence of DNA in a gene; normally refers to a genetic change significant enough to alter the appearance or function of the organism
neutral mutation
a mutation that has little or not effect on the function of the encoded protein
nucleotide substitution
a mutation that replaces one nucleotide in a DNA molecule with another; for example a change from an adenine to a guanine
point mutation
a mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed
a specific sequence of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds, initiating gene transcription
ribonucleic acid
a molecule composed of ribose nucleotides, each of which consists of a phosphate group, the sugar ribose, and one of the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, or uracil; transfers hereditary instruction from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; also the genetic material of some viruses
ribosomal RNA
rRNA a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes
an organelle consisting of two subunitsm each composed of ribosomal RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis during which the sequence of bases of messenger RNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein
RNA polymerase
in RNA synthesis, an enzyme that catalyzes the bonding of free RNA nucleotides into a continuous strand using RNA nucleotides that are complementary to those of a strand of DNA
start codon
the first AUG codon in a messager RNA molecule
stop codon
a codon in messenger RNA that stops protein synthesis and causes the completed protein chain to be released from the ribosome
template strand
the strand of the DNA double helix from which RNA is transcribed
the synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template
transfer RNA
tRNA a type of RNA that binds to a specific amino acid by means of a set of three bases (the anticodon) on the tRNA that are complementary to the mRNA codon for that amino acid; carries its amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis, recognizes a codon of mRNA, and positions its amino acid for incorporation into the growing protein chain
the process whereby the sequence of bases of messenger RNA is converted into the sequence of amino acids of a protein