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102 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Actin
Muscle protein making up the thin filaments in a sarcomere yielding muscle contraction
play a new role in the movement of the cell and its organelles
Apoptosis
programmed cell death involving a cascade of specific cellular events leading to death & destruction of the cell
Bacillus
Rod shaped bacteria
Basal Body
Cytoplasmic structure that is located at the base & may organize cilia or flagella
Capsule
Gelentinous layer surrounding the cells of blue green algae & certain bacteria
Cell
smallest unit that displays the properties of life.
compsed of cytoplasm surrounding by a plasma membrane
cell envelope
in a prokaryotic cell, the portion composed of the plasma membrane,the cell weall, and the glycocalyx
cell theory
one of the major theories of biology which states all organisms are made up of cells
self reproduction
come from preexisting cells
Cell Wall
structure that surrounds a plant protistan, fungal, or bacteria cell & maintains cell's shape & rigidity
Cell Vacuole
in a plant cell, a large fluid filled sac that stores metabolites. during growth it enlarges, forcing the primary cell wall to expand & the cell surface to volume ratio to increase
centriole
cell organelle, existing in pairs that occurs in teh centrosome & may help organize a mitotic spindle for chromosome movement during animal cell division
centrisome
central microtubal organizing center of cells. in animal cells it contains 2 centrioles
chloroplast
membrane bound organelle in algae & plants w/ chrolophyll containing membranes thylakoids where photosynthesis takes place
chromatin
network of fibrils consisting of DNA & associated proteins observed w/i a nucleus that is not dividing
chromosome
structure consisting of DNA complexed w/ proteins that transmits genetic info from teh previos generation of cells and organisms to the next generation
cilium
short hairlike projection from the plasma membrane occurring usually in larger numbers
coccus
a spherical shaped bacterium
cristae
short fingerlike projections formed by the folding of the inner membrane of mitocondria
cyanobacteria
photosynthetic bacterium that contains cholorophyll and releases oxygen formally called a blue green algae
cytoplasm
contents of a cell between the nucleus region of bacteria and the plasma membrane
cytoskeleton
internal framework of the cell consisting of mucrotubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments
endomembrane system
consists of the nuclear envelope, the membranes of the endoplasmic recticulum, the golgi apparatus, and several tpes pf vescicles
endoplasmic reticulum
system of membranous saccules and channels in the cytoplasm often with attached ribosomes
eukaryotic cell
type of cell that has a membrane bounded nucleus and membranous oranelles; found in organisms within the domain Eukarya
fimbriae
fingerlike extension from the oviduct near the ovary
flagellum
long slender extension used for locomotion by some bacteria, protozoans, and sperm
glycocalyx
gel-like coating outside the cell wall of a bacteruim. if compact it is called a capsule if diffused it is called a slime layer
golgi apparatus
organelle consisting of saccules and vesicles that processes, packages, and ditributes molecules about or from the cell
granum
stack of cholorphyll containing thylakoids in a chloroplast
inclusion body
in a bacterium strored nutrients for later use
intermediate filament
ropelike assemblies of fiborous polypeptides in the cytoskeleton that provide support and strength to cells; so called because they are intermediate in size between atin filaments and microtubules
lysosome
membrane bounded vesicle that contains hydrolytic enymes for digesting macromolecuels
matrix
unstructured semifluid substance that fills the space between cells in connectice tissues or inside organelles
mesosome
ina bacteria plasma membrane that folds into the cytoplasm and increases surface area
microtubule
small cyndryical organellecomposed of tubulin protein around an empty central core; present in the cytoplasm centrioles cilia and flagella
mitochondrion
membrane bounded organelle in which atp molecules are produced during the process of cellular respiration
motor molecule
protein that moves along either actin filaments or microtubules and tranlocates oranelles
nuclear envelope
dbl membrane that surrounds the nucleous in eukaryotic cells nd is connected to the endoplasmic reticulum has pores that allow substances to pass between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
nuclear pore
opening in the nucleur envelope that permits the passage of proteins into the nucleus and ribosomeal subunits out of the nucleus
nucleoid
region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located it is not bounded by a nucleur envelope
nucleolus
dark staining spherical body in the nucleus that produces ribosomal subunits
nucleoplasm
semifluid medium of the nucleus containing chromatin
nucleus
membrane bounded organelle within a eukaryotic cell that contains chromosomes and control the structure and function of the cell
organelle
small often membranous structures structure in the cytoplams having a specific structure and function
peroxisome
enzzyme filled cesicle in which faty acids and amino acids are metabolied to hydrogen peroxide that is broken down to harmless product
plasma membrane
membrane surrounding the cytoplasma that consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins functions to regulate the entrance and exit of molecules from cell
plasmid
self duplicating rin of accessory DNA in the cytoplasm of bacteria
polyribosome
string of ribosomes simultansously tranlating regions of the same mRNA strand during protein sysnthesis
prokaryotic cell
lacking a membrane bounded nucleus and organelles the cell type within the domains bacteria and archaea
pseudopod
cytoplasmic extension of amoeboid protists used for locomotion and engulfing food
ribosome
rna and protein in 2 subunits site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
rough er
membranous system of tubules, vesicles, and sacs in cells; has attached ribosomes
secretion
release of a substance by exocytosis from a cell that may be a gland or part of a gland
sex pili
in a bacterium elongated hollow appendage used to transfer DNA to other cells
smooth er
membranous system of tubules vesicles and save in eukyotic cells lacks attached ribosomes
spririlla
logn rod shaped bacterium that is twisted into a rigid spiral if the spiral is flexible rather than rigid it is calleda spirochete
stroma
fluid within a chrolopast that contains enzymes involved in the synthesis of carbohydrates during photosynthesis
surface area to volume ratio
ratio of a cell's outside area to its internal volume
thylakoid
flattened sac within a granum whose membrance contains chlorophyll and where the light reactions of photosynthesis occur
vacuole
membrane bounded sac larger than a vesicle usually funtions in storage and can contain a variety of substances. in plants the central vacuole fills much of the interior of the cell
vesicle
small membrane bounded sav that stores substances within a cell
cell
smallest most basic unit of life
multicellular organisms
similar cells combine to form tissue
energy
capacity to do work
metabolism
encompass all the chemical reactions that occue within a cell
photosynthesis
process which transforms solar energy into chemical energy in the bonds of organic nutrient molecules
homeostasis
maintanence of internal conditions within certain boundaries
reproduce
ability make another organism like itself
genes
contain certina info for how the organism is to be formed - long molecules of DNA
adaptations
modifications that make organisms suited to their way of life
species
group of interbreeding individuals
natural selection
organisms become modified over time bu this process to become better suited to their surroundings
evolution
1 species common ancestor to several species
biosphere
organism of life beyond the individual
zone of air land and water at teh surface of teh earth where living organisms are found
population
all members of a species within a particular area
community
populations interact among themselves
ecosystem
community interacs with physical environment
biodiversity
total # of species the variability of their genes & ecosystems where they live
extinction
death of a species or larger taxonomic group
taxonomy
discipline of identifying & classification organisms according to certain rules
categories of classification - least to most inclusive
species - genus- family - order - class - phylum - kingdom - domain
each gets more distinct
domain
bacteria - unicellular
archaea - unicellular
eukarya - membrane bound nucleus
kingdoms
protists -
fungi
plants -
animals
binomial name
1st - genus
2nd - specific epithet w/i a genus
biology
study of life
scientific process
observation
hypothesis
experiments
conclusion
phenomeon
natureal event that can be understood more fully in time
observations
use all senses
use others data
chance
inductive reasoning
creative thinking to combine isolated facts into a cohesive whole
hypothesis
possible explanation for a natural event presented as a statement - can be tested
deductive reasoning
if then logic determine how to test hyposthesis
prediction
part of deductive reasoning tells helps scientists to know what to do next
experimental design
manner in which he intends to conduct an experiment testing what they want to test & results are meaningful
control group or control
goes through allthe steps of the experiment but lacks the factor/or not exposed to the factor
model
representation of actual object - computer simulation or dummys for a crash test
data
results of an experiment observable & objective not subjective
conclusion
is hypothesis correct? can lead to another hypothesis - must be repeatable
scientific theories
concepts that join together well supported & related hypothesis
biogenesis
life only comes from life
principle or law
theories that are generally accepted by overwhelming # of scientists
experimental variable
component being tested
dependant variable
results or change that occurs due to experimental variable