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34 Cards in this Set

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haploid cell that participates in fertilization by fusing with another haploid
gamete
form of asexual reproduction that produces identical offspring
binary fission
section of a chromosome that codes for a protein or RNA molecule
gene
structure made of DNA and associated proteins on which genes are located
chromosome
one of a pair of strands of DNA that make up a chromosome during meiosis or mitosis
chromatid
region joining two chromatids
centromere
a member of a chromosome pair, both of which are similar in shape, size, and the genes they carry
homologous chromosome
term used to indicate a cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent
diploid
having only one set of chromosomes
haploid
fertilized egg cell
zygote
a chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex
autosome
one of a pair of chromosomes that are involved in determining the sex of an individual
sex chromosome
array of the chromosome’s found in an individual’s cells arranged in order of size and shape
karytoype
repeating five-phase sequence of eukaryotic cell growth and division
cell cycle
period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions of a eukaryotic cell during which the cell carries out routine functioning, copies its DNA and prepares to divide
interphase
process during cell division in which the nucleus of a cell divides into two nuclei, each with the same number and kind of chromosomes
mitosis
cytoplasmic network of protein filaments that plays an essential role in cell movement, shape, and divisions
cytokinesis
a disease characterized by abnormal cell growth
cancer
structure composed of centrioles and individual hollow protein fibers that moves chromosomes apart during cell division
spindle
process during cell division in which the nucleus of a cell completes two successive divisions that produce four cells (gametes), each with a chromosome number that has been reduced by half
meiosis
the exchange of reciprocal segments of DNA by homologous chromosomes at the beginning of meiosis; source of genetic recombination
Crossing-over
random distribution of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
independent assortment
process by which gametes are produced in male animals
spermatogenesis
male gamete
sperm
process by which gametes are produced in female animals
oogenesis
a mature egg cell
ovum
reproduction that involves only one parent and results in genetically identical offspring
asexual reproduction
organism produced by asexual reproduction that is genetically identical to its parent
clone
reproduction in which gametes from opposite sexes of mating types unite to form a zygote
sexual reproduction
entire lifespan of an organism; summary of all of the stages of an organism
life cycle
the process by which haploid gametes join to form a diploid zygote
fertilization
diploid phase in the type of life cycle known as alternation of generations; diploid individual that produces spores
sporophyte
an asexual, resting, reproductive haploid cell
spore
haploid phase in the type of life cycle known as alternation of generations; haploid individual that produces gametes
gameophyte