Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central nervous system
CNS brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
PNS every thing else
a nerve cell, the cells in the nervous system that are responsible for transmitting nerve impulses
non transmitting support cells, functions include insulation guiding growth and migration of neurons in embrionic developement
4 types of glia cells
radial glia
incude a tight junction in capilaries in the brain regulate composition of extra cellular fluid, regulate blood flow to the neurons controls the blood brain barrier
radial glia
regulate outgrowth of neurons from the neural tube
insulating glia in the CNS
insulating cells in the peripheral, forms the myelin sheaths around the axons insulating them from electrical currents
nodes of ranvier
breaks inbetween the schwann cells and the place where potassium is concentrated for use in action potentials in the schwann cells
three stages in processing information
sensory input
motor output
specialized neurons for information processing
sensory neurons
motor neurons
sensory neurons
transmitting information from sensors of external stimuli and internal conditions
integrate (interpret and analyze) the sensory input, taking into consideration the current situation and the past
motor neurons
conductors out of the CNS these neurons communicate with effector cells
effector cells = muscle or endocrine cells
cell body
includes all organells and the nucleus
branched extensions that recieve signals from other neurons
extension s that transmitt signals, coverd by myelin sheath
axon hillock
the base of the cell body ( neck)
synaptic terminal
branched end of the axon
site of communication between synaptic terminal and another cell
pre synaptic cell - transmitter
post synaptic - reciever
chemical envelope that transmits signals between the synaptic terminal and the post synaptic cell
resting potential
membrane potential of a neuron that is not transmitting a signal
Ion Channels 3 types and descriptions
stretched ion channel - open when membrane is mechanically deformed
ligand gated - open/close when chemically stimulated
voltage gated - open/close when membrane potential changes
action potential
a stimulus that is strong enough to trigger a depolerization and triggers a different response
increase in the magnetude of the membrane potential (inside the membrane is neg)
reduction of magnetude of membrane potential (membrane is less neg)
graded potentials
magnetude of hyper and de polerization varies with strenght of stimuli
is a depolerization grade up to a certian membrane voltage
refractory period
is the action potential "downtime" between one action potential and another
electrical synapses
contain gapp junctions which DO allow electrical current to flow directly from cell to cell
chemical synapses
involves the release of a chemical neurotransmitter by the presynaptic neuron
synaptic vessicles
used in the packaging of the neurotransmitters and are stored in the synaptic terminals, used to start action potential
synaptic cleft
narrow gap that seperates the presynaptic neuron from the post synaptic
direct synaptic transmission
post synaptic potential
excitory post synaptic potentials
EPSP's depolerization that brings the membrane potential toward the threshold
inhibitory post synaptic potentials
IPSP's hyperpolerizations that produce IPSP's because they move the membrane potential further from threshold