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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
zona pellucida
extracellular matrix of ovum (egg), made of a peptide layer
Secondary oocyte
ovum at ovulation, still in oviduct, uterus is ready for impregnation
Sperm 3 parts
1. tail ( flagella) plasma membrane
2. mid peice also called the basal body carries the mitochondria and can help with ATP for movement of the tail.
3. head carries the nucleus of the sperm and a vessicle containing the acrosome enzyme
Acrosome enzyme
enzyme within the head of the sperm that is hydrolitic helpint the sperm through the zona of pellucida layer of the ovum.
Cortical reaction
the cortical granuals in the ovum react moving into the zona of pellucida layer to harden it and prevent poly sperme
the female reproductive cell, 1n or haploid
male reproductive cell, 1n or haploid
the creation of a zygote, this needs a sperm and egg to complete, the zygote is a 2n or diploid organism
fertilization functions
1. to create a 2n/diploid zygote
2. activation of the ovum - increased metabolism, protien and mRNA synthesis, capacitation
sperm undergoes a change in the female reproductive tract enabling it to then penetrate and fertalize the egg
rapid series of cell divisions to produce a multi-cellular embryo ( blastula) from the zygote, and point of cleavage is a blastula
ball of cells with a hollow center
the hollow in the center of the blastula
meroblastic cleavage
incomplete cleavage or division of a yolk rich egg, cell division is restricted to the animal pole of the embryo characteristic of avain eggs.
cleavage of an egg having little yolk, cleavage extends from one pole of the embryo to the other
migration and in-folding of cells inthe blastula to form three disctinct cell layers, the end pointis gastrula
forms the outer layer of the gastrula
lines the embryonic digestive tract
partailly fills the space between the ectoderm and endoderm.
embryonic germ layers
the three layers produced by gastrulation also called embryonic tissues
animal pole
the part of the egg that has less yolk in it usually found in telolithical eggs
vegital pole
yolk is concentrated at the pole of the telolithical eggs
having a large yolk situated at or near one end, meroblastic cleavage
eggs with small amounts of evenly distributed yolk , holoblastic cleavage
cells of the blastula
the primitive gut in the blastula
stages of gastrulation
surface cells migrate into the interior of the embryo in involution, involution cells form the new internal cavity called the archtenteron, the archtenteron opens to the outside through the blastopore.
the blastopore becomes the anus
the blastopore becomes the mouth
neurulation stages
late in gastrulation the hollow neural tube begins formation, this is a chordate process, the nural plate is formes first, the center of the plate sinks to form the groove, while the edges lift to form the folds, these folds move toward each other and eventually fuse to form the neural tube. the anterior end turns into the brain the posterior end turns into the spinal chord.