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190 Cards in this Set

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What is a major reason the earth is habitatable?
water
polar molecule
shaped something like a wide v, the opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges. Water is an example of this
cohesion
hydrogen bonds hold the substance together. This contributes to transport of water and dissolve nutrients agains gravity in plants.
adhesion
the clinging of one substance to another. This helps counter gravity from pulling down cell walls
surface tension
a measure of how difficult it si to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water has more of this than other liquids.
What does water do to temperature?
it moderates it by absorbing heat from air that is wormer and releasing the stored heat to air that is cooler
kinetic energy
the energy of motion. The faster a molecule moves, the greater this is.
heat
the measure of the total amoun of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter
Temperature
Measures the intesity fo heat due to the average kinetic energy of the molecules
calorie (cal)
the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 celsius degree
Joule
another energy unit in the book that equals .239 cal
specific heat
the amount of heat that must be absorbedor lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temrerature by 1 C
Where does water's specific heat come from?
Hydrogen bonding
Because organisms are made primarily of water, they are more able
to resistchanges in their own temperature
evaporation
thransformatin from liquid to a gas
heat of vaporization
the quantity of heat a liquid must absorg for 1 g of it to be converted from the liquid to gaseous state
water's high heat of vaporization helps what?
moderate Earth's climate
evaporative cooling
the survace of the liquid that remains behind and cools down. It occurs because the "hottest" molecules, or those with the greatest kinetic energy, are the most likely to leave as a gas
Water is one fo the few substances that does what as a solid?
water is less dense as a solid than as a liquid
solution
a liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solvent
the dissovling agent of a solution
solute
substance that is dissolved
aqueous solution
one in which the water is the solvent
hydration shell
the sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
hydrophilic
whether ionic or polar, any substance that has an affinity for water. The substances don't have to dissolve to be this.
colloid
large molecules that remain suspended in the aqueous liquid of the cell
hydrophobic
substances that are nonionic and nonpolar that seem to repel water
molecular mass
the sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule
mole (mol)
also known as Avogadro's number;

6.02x10^23
Molarity
the number of moles of solute per liter of solution; it is the unit of concentration most often used
hydrogen ion
a single proton with a charge of 1+. This is left when the hydrogen atom leaves its electron behind.
hydroxide ion (OH-)
the water molecule that lost its proton; it has the charge of 1-
acid
substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution; values 0 upto 7 on the pH scale. On it's side [H+]>[OH-]
base
a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. Values of 14 down to 7 on the pH scale; On it's side, [H+]<[OH-]
What does each pH unit equal?
a tenfold difference in the H+ and OH- concentrations
acid percipitation
refers to rain, snow or fog with a pH lower or more acidic than pH 5.6
buffers
substances that minimze changes in the concetrations of H+ and OH- in a solution. It works by accepting hydrogen ions from the solution when they are in excess and donating hydrogen ions to the solution when they have been depleted. Examples of these include carbonic acid (H2CO3)
when is the pH neutral?
pH 7
organic chemistry
the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon compounds
What is HONC?
valences

Hydrogen=1
Oxygen=2
Nitrogen=3
Carbon=4
hydrocarbons
organic molecules that consist only of carbon and hydrogen. These include methane, ethane, and ethylene
isomers
variation in the architecture of organic molecules when the compounds have the same number of atoms of the same elements but different structures, and thus, different properties.
structural isomers
same formula, but different structures and covalent arrangements in their atoms
geometric isomers
double bond with carbon; differ in spatial arrangements; two types

CIS: same elemet on the same side

TRANS: Two elements on opposite sides
enantionmers
mirrior images that are non superimposable (think of your thumbs when you put your hands on top of each other)
methyl
used in organic chemistry
functional groups
components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reations
hydroxyl
OH
compound: alcohol
carboxyl
COOH
compound: caroxylic acid
function: makes solutions acidic
carbonyl
compound: ketones
function: ketone bodies (urine)
amino
NH2
compound: amino
function: makes solutions basic
phosphate
PO4
compund:organic phosphate
function: ATP, phosolipid bilayer (plasma membrane)
sulfhydryl
SH
compound: thiols
function: proteins
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
the primary energy transferring molecule in the cell, it is a more complicated organic phosphate and when it loses one phosphate it becomes ADP instead
monosaccharides
These have molecular formulas that are some multiple of the unit CH2O.
Glucose is an example of this, which is a major nutrient for cells
tryclycerol
three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule
polynucleotide
molecular mass
joule (j)
unit of energy 1 j= .239 cal
1 cal= 4.184 j
phosphate group
a functional group important in energy transfer
denaturation
In proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme condition of pH, salt concentration and temperature
mole (mol)
The number of grams of a substance that equals its molecular weight in daltons and contains Avogadros number of molecules
hydrogen ion
a single proton wiht a charge of +1. The dissociation of water molecule (H20) leads to the generation of a hydroxide ion (OH-) and a hydrogen ion (H+).
structural isomer
one of several organic compoundsthat have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms
colloid
a mixture made up of a liquid and particles that (because of their large size) remain suspended in that liquid
tertiary structure
irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to inertation in the side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges
acid precipitation
rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than pH 5.6
hydrophillic
having an affinity for water
cohesion
the binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds
pyrimidine
ONe of the two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Cytosine (C), thymine(T) and uracil (U) are pyrimidines
amino group
a functional group that consisit of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen atom and acquiring a charge of +1
cellulose
a structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by beta-1 and 4 glycosidic linkages
lipid
one family of compounds, including fats, phosopholipids and steroids, that are insoluble in water
phospholipid
a molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer fo biological membaranes, having polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar hydrophobic tail
solution
liquid that is a homogeneous mixture fo two or more substances
carbonyl group
a functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom.
fat (triacylglycerol)
a biological compound consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule
hydroxyl group
a functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols
hydration shell
sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
disulfide bridge
a strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer
deoxyribose
the sugar componenet of DNA having one less hydroxyl group than ribose, the sugar component of RNA
isomer
one of several organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties. The three types of isomers are structural isomers, geometric isomers, and enantiomers
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
a doubles starnded, helical nucleic adid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins
monomer
the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
cis
arrangement of two noncarbon atoms, each bound to one of the carbons in carbon-carbon double bond, where two noncarbon atoms are on the same side relative to the double bond
starch
a storage polysaccaharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose
primary structure
the level of protein reffering to the specific sequence of amino acids
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), quanine (G), and uracil; usually single stranded; functions in protein syntesis and as the genome of some viruses
adhesion
the attration between different kinds of molecules
condensation reaction
a reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other throught the loss of a small molecule, usually water, also called a dehydration reaction
acid
a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
chlosterol
a steriod that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the syntesis of tother biologically important steroids
trans
arrangement of two noncarbon atoms, each bound to one of the carbons in carbon-carbon double bond, where the two non carbon atoms are on opposite sides relative to the double bond
polar molecule
a molecule such as water with opposite charges on opposite sides
monosaccharide
the simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. ALso known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of monosaccharides are generally some multiple of CH2O
glycosidic linkage
a covalent bond formed between two mono saccarides by a dehydration reaction
macromolecule
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by condesnastion reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules
base
a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
double helix
the of native DNA, reffering to its adjacent polynucleotide strnads wound into a spiral shape
polymer
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monommers linked together
chaperonin
a protein molecule that assists the proper folding of other proteins
nucleotide
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and phosphate group
hydroxide ion
a water molecule that has lost a proton
antiparallel
the opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix
chitin
a strucural polysaccharide of an amino sugar found in many fungi and in the exoskeletons of all anthropods
kinetic energy
the energy of motion, which is directly related ot the speed of that motion. Moving matter does work by imparting motion to other matter
unsaturated fatty acid
fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
beta pleated sheet
one form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth. Two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds
temperature
a measure of intensity of heat in degrees, reflecting the average kinetic energy of the molecules
gene
a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA in some viruses)
hydrolysis
a chemical process that lyeses or splits molecules by the addition of water
alpha helix
a spiral shape constitution one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific hydrogen bonding experience
solvent
the dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile solvent known
sulfhydryl group
a functional group consiting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (--SH)
specific heat
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g or a substance to change its temperature by 1 degree
the binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds
cohesion
hydrocarbon
an organic molecule consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
enantiomer
one of two molecules that are mirror images of each other
molecular mass
the sum of the masses of all atoms in the molecule; sometimes called molecular weight
geometric isomer
one of several organic compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms
double helix
the form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
evaporative cooling
the property of liquid whereby the surface becomes cooler during evaporation, owing to a loss of highly kinetic molecules to the gaseous state
carboxyl group
a functional group present in organic acids and consisting fo a single carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group
disulfide bridge
a strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer
fatty acid
a long carbon chain carboxylic acid. Fatty acids vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a clycerol molecule form fat
dehydration reaction
a chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule
pH
a meaure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14
geometric isomer
one of several organic compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms
alpha helix
a spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific hydrogen bonding structure
condesation reaction
a reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to eaach other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water, also called dehydration reaction
nucleotide
the building block fo a nucleic acid consisting of a five carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and phosphate group
marcomolecule
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules usually by a condensation reaction. Polysaccaharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules
secondary strcuture
the localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages
hydrophobic
having an adversion to water; tending to calesce and form droplets in water
peptide bond
the covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by a dehydration reaction
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the solvent
amino group
a functional group that consist of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1
hydroponic culture
a method where plants are grown without soil by using mineral solutions
denaturation
in proteins, a process in which proteins unravel and lose its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. IN DNA, the separation fo the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature
steroid
a type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached
tertiary structure
irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges
hydrophobic interaction
a type fo weak chemical bond formed when molecules that do not mix with water coalsece to exclude the water
hydroxyl group
a functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols
acid
substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid possessiing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tails. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton
catalyst
a chemical agent that changes the rate of reaction without being consumed by the reaction
saturated fatty acid
a fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number fo hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton
protein
a three dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids
disaccharide
a double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis
gene
a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA
carbohydrate
a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides)?
fat(triacylglycerol)
a biological compound consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule
surface tension
a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water has a high surface tension because of the hydrogen bonding of surface molecules
quaternary structure
the particular shape of complex aggregate protein, defined by the characteristic three dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide
molarity
a comon measure of solute concentration, referring to the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
buffer
a substance that consists of acid and base forms in a solution and that minimizes charges in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution
enzyme
protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
activation energy
also known as free energy of activation
substrate
the ractant on which an enzyme works
catalyst
a chemical agent that changes the rate of reaction without being consumed by the reaction
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
an adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed
metabolism
the total of an organisms chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways
cofactor
any non-protein molecule or ion t hat is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. These can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate
induced fit
the change in shape fo the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by the entry of the substrate
exergonic reaction
a spontaneousl chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy
metabolic pathway
a series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule (anabolic pathway) or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds (catabolic pathway)
entropy
a quantitative measure of disorder or randomness, symbolized by S.
competitive inhibitor
a substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by enetering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics
active site
the specifice prortion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds
energy
the capacity to do work (to move matter agains an opposing force)
noncompetitive inhibitor
a substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate?
thermodynamics
(1) the study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. (2) A phenomenon in which external DNA is taken up by a cell and functions there
heat
the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter. Heat is energy in its most random form.
potential energy
the energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangements
energy coupling
in cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
free energy of activation
the amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start; also called activation energy
feedback inhibition
s method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway
first law of thermodynamics
the principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed
cooperativity
an interaction of the constituent subunits of a protein whereby a conformational change in one subunit is transmitted to all the others
free energy
the portion of a systems energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system. The change in free energy of a system is calculated by the equation Delta G= Delta H - t Delta, where t is absolute temperature
second law of thermodynamics
the principle whereby every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to h eat, and in spontaneous reactions, the free energy of the system also decreases
kinetic energy
the enrgy of motion, which is directly related to the speed of that motion. Moving matter does work by imparting motion to other matter
bioenergetics
the flow of energy through an animal, taking into account the energy stored in the food it consumes, the energy being used for basic functions, activity, growth, reproduction, and regulation, and energy lost to the enviornment as heat or in waste
anabolic pathway
a metabolic pathway that syntesizes a complex molecule from simpler compounds
endergonic reaction
a non-spontaneous chemical reaction in which fee energy is absorbed from the surroundings
enzyme-substrate complex
a temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecule(s)
allosteric regulation
the binding of a molecule to a single protein that affects the function of the protein at a different site
coenzyme
an organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions
catabolic pathway
a metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds
chemical energy
energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules; a form of potential energy
phosphorylated
referring to a molecule that has been the recipient of a phosphate group