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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cell
collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that seperates the cell from its surroundings; basic unit of all forms of life
cell theory
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit of structure and function in a living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
cell membrane
thin flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
cell wall
strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
nucleus
the center of the atom which contains the protons and nuetrons; in cells, structure that contains the cells genetic material (DNA) and controls the cells activities
cytoplasm
material inside the cell membrane- not including the nucleus
prokaryote
organism lacking a nuclues
eukaryote
organism whose cells contain nuclei
organelle
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
chromatin
grnaular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
chromosone
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetis info. that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
nucleolous
small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of protein begins
nuclear envelope
layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
ribosome
small particle is the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
vacuole
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, protein, and carbohydrates
endoplasmic retitulum
internal membrane system in cells in which lipid componets of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified1
Golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
lysosome
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cells
vacuole
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
chloroplasts
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
mitochondrion
cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
lipid bilayer
double layered sheet that forms the cove of nearlu all cell membranes
concentration
the mass of solute in a given volume of solutions, or mass/volume
diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permable membrane
facilitated diffusion
movement of specific molecules accross cell membrane through protein channels
active transportq
energy requiring process that moves material accross a cell membrane against a cencentration difference4
endocytosis
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
phagocytosis
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take then into the cell
exocytosis
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
cell specialization
the process in which cells develop ion different ways to perform different tasks
tissue
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
organ
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
organ system
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function