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42 Cards in this Set

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How is circulation in protozoans accomplished?
Protozoans accomplish circulation through simple diffusion within the cell.
How is circulation in cnidarians accomplished?
Hydra and other cnidarians have body walls that are two cells thick.

All cells are in direct contact with internal or external environments so there is no need for specialized circulatory system.
How is circulation in Arthropods accomplished?
Open circulatory systems where blood (interstitial fluid) is in direct contact with body tissues.

Circulated primarily by body movements.

Blood flows through dorsal vessel and into spaces called sinuses where exchange occurs.
How is circulation in annelids accomplished?
Earthworm.

Closed circulatory system to deliver materials to cells not in direct contact with external environment.

Blood moves towards head in the dorsal vessel which functions as the main heart by coordinated contractions.

Five pairs of vessels connect dorsal and ventral vessel and function as additional pumps.

Earthworm blood lacks red blood cells. Contains a hemoglobin-like pigment that is dissolved in aqueous solution.
Circulation in Humans
Human cardiovascular system composed of 4 chambered muscular heart, network of vessels, and the blood.

Arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries -> venuoles -> veins

Exchange occurs across capillary walls
What does the left side of the heart do?

What does the right side of the heart do?
Left side pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body after recieving it from the lungs via the pulmonary vessels.

Left side pumps deoxygenated blood to the rest of the lungs after recieving it from the body via the vena cavas.
What are the four chambers of the heard called?
Right Atrium Left Atrium
Right Ventricle Left Ventricle
What are the three types of blood vessels?
Arteries - Thick-walled, muscular, elastic, transport blood away from heart (not always oxygenated though!!)

Veins - Thin walled, inelastic, carry blood towards the heart. Can have valves to prevent backflow in areas such as arms and legs

Capillaries - Very thin walls allow for diffusion, smallest of all vessels, red blood cells go in single file
Cross Section of artery: in->out
Blood -> Endothelium -> Muscle -> Connective Tissue
Cross Section of capillary: in->out
Blood -> Endothelium
Cross Section of vein: in->out
Blood -> Endothelium -> Muscle -> Connective Tissue
What are lymph vessels and what do they do?

What are lymph nodes?
Lymphatic system is secondary circulatory system.

Its vessels transport excess interstitial fluid called lymph to the CV system, keeping body fluids constant.

Lymph nodes are swellings along lymph vessels containing phagocytic cells (leukocytes) that filter the lympth, removing and destroying foreign particles and pathogens.
What are the main two components of blood?
Liquid (Plasma) (55%)
Aqueous mixture of nutrients, salts, respiratory gases, wastes, hormones, blood proteins

Cellular (45%)
erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
What are Erythrocytes?
AKA - Red Blood Cells

Oxygen carrying components within blood.

When hemoglobin bonds with oxygen, called oxyhemoglobin

Formed from stem cells in bone barrow that lose their nuclei, mitochondria, and membranous organelles.

Once mature, can circulate for 120 days then removed by liver and spleen.
What are leukocytes?
AKA - White Blood Cells

Larger than erythrocytes and are protective in function

Some WBCs phagocytize foreign matter and organisms such as bacteria. Others migrate from blood to tissue where they become macrophages.

Other WBC, called lymphocytes, are involved in immune response and production of antibodies (B cells) or cytolysis of infected cells (T cells).
What are platelets?
Cell fragments that lack nuclei and are involved in clot formation.
What do B cells produce?
Antibodies
What do T cells do?
Cytolysis of infected cells
What is the process of Clotting?
Platelets in contact with collagen of damaged vessel release chemical that causes platelets to plug.

Platelets and and damaged tissue release clotting factor thromboplastin.

Thromboplastin plus cofactors calcium and vitamin K, convert inactive plasma protein prothrombin to its active form, thrombin.

Thrombin then converts fibrinogen (plasma protein) into fibrin.

Threads of fibrin coat the damaged area and trap blood cells to form a clot.

Clots prevent extensive blood loss while the damaged vessel heals itself.

The fluid left after blood clotting is called serum.
What are the two specific defense mechanisms of the immune system?
Humoral immunity - Involves production of antibodies

Cell-mediated immunity - Involves cells that combat fungal and viral infection.

Lymphocytes are responsible for both of these immune mechanisms?
What is responsible for both humoral and cell-mediated immunity?
Lymphocytes
What things are involved in Humoral Immunity?
Production of antibodies, very specific to antigens.

Antibodies (AKA: immunoglobins (Igs)) are complex proteins that bind to specific antigens and trigger the immune system to remove them.

Antibodies either attract other cells (leukocytes) to phagocytize the antigen, or cause the antigens to clump together (agglutinate) and form large insoluble complexes, facilitating their removal by phagocytic cells.
What are Antibodies?
Antibodies (AKA: immunoglobins (Igs)) are complex proteins that bind to specific antigens and trigger the immune system to remove them.
What is active immunity?
Production of antibodies during an immune response.

Immune system stimulated to produce more antibodies due to vaccination or natural source. Can take weeks to build up.
What is passive immunity?
Transfer of antibodies produced by another individual or organism.

Acquired passively (mother->fetus) or by injection.

Short lived, only as long as antibodies remain in circulation.
What is gamma globulin?
Fraction of blood containing a wide variety of antibodie, can be used to confer temporary protection against hepatitis and other diseases by passive immunity.
What are the five nonspecific defense mechanisms?
Skin - Physical barrier against bacterial invasion. In addition, pores secrete sweat that attacks bacterial cell walls.

Mucous-coated Epithelia - Lines passages to outside world which trap and filter particles.

Macrophages - Engulf and destroy foreign particles

Inflammatory Response - Histamines cause increase in blood flow to damaged area. Granulocytes attracted to injured site can phagocytize antigenic material.

Interferons - Proteins that diffuse from virally infected cells to non-infected cells, where they help prevent the spread of the virus.
What do histamines do?
Cause blood vessel dilation

Can be released during allergies causing allergic reaction
Why does rejection of transplant tissue take place?
Transplanted tissue is detected as foreign by the recipient's body.

Resulting immune response can cause rejection.

Immuno-supressing drugs can be used to lower the immune response to transplants and decrease the likelihood of rejection.
Blood Types Chart
Blood Type Antigen on RBC Antibodies Produced
A A anti-B
B B anti-A
AB A & B none
O none anti-A & anti-B
What is the general rule for Blood Transfusions?
If donor's antigen is already in the recipient's blood, no clumping will occur.

AB is "universal recipient" (no antibodies)
O is "universal donor" (no surface antigens)
What is the Rh factor?
Another antigen which may be present on surface of RBCs

Rh- mother can be sensitized by Rh+ child during birth.

Further Rh+ children may suffer from sever anemia due to destruction of Rh+ RBCs in child by mother's antibodies.
What is circulation in plants called?
Translocation
What is the primary orga of transport in the plant?
Plant stem that have vascular bundles that fun up and down the stem.
Vascular Bundle in Plant Stems
Center of stem that contains xylem, phloem, and cambium cells.
What are xylem?
Thick walled, often hollow cells, located inside of Vascular bundle.

Carry water and minerals up the the plant and thick walls give the plant the support.

Older zylem cells die and form the heartwood used for lumber.

Outer layer of xylem is still alive and is called sapwood.

Two types of xylem cells: vessels cells and tracheids.
How does water rise in xylem?
Transpiration Pull - As water evaporates from the leaves of plants, a vacuum is created which pulls water up the stem

Capillary Action - Any liquid in a thin tube will rise due to the surface tension of the liquid and interactions between the tube and liquid.

Root Pressure - Water entering the root hairs exerts a pressure which pushes water up the stem.
What are Phloem?
Phloem cells are thin-walled cells on the outside of the vascular bundle.

Transport food down the stem from carbohydrates produced in the leaves.

Phloem cells are living and include sieve tube cells, and companion cells.

If phloem connections are severed, tree will die.
What is the cambium?
Actively dividing, undifferentiated cells, that become phloem and xylem, 2 cells think.
What are the layers of a plant in->out?
pith -> xylem -> cambium -> phloem -> cortex -> epidermis (outer bark)
What is the purpose of a root?
Absorb materials and anchor the plant

Root hairs are specialized cells of the root epidermis with thin-walled projections. They increase the surface area for absorption of water and minerals from the soil.

Root has same layers as stem: xylem -> cambium -> phloem -> cortex -> epidermis (contains root hair cells)
What are the regions of growth in a plant?
Meristem - Actively dividing, undifferentiated cells of a plant

Cambium - Lying between phloem and zylem, type of meristem called lateral meristem. Provides for lateral growth of the stem by adding to the phloem or xylem (growth in diameter).

Apical meristem is also located at root and stem tips where division leads to increase in length.