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19 Cards in this Set

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Countercurrent
Blood and water flow in opposite dirctions to maxmize gas exchange
How do animals maximize the effiency of repiration?
increase [gradent] and SA
decrease diffusion distance(diffusion not affective for distance greater than .5mm)
Why do terrestrials not have gills?
Air is less bouyent then water and water diffuses to into air(gills would be a large area evaperation or loss of water could occur)
The most efficient respiration system amoung terresterials is? why?
found in birds and incoperates unidirectional air flow and cross current blood flow through the lungs
What problem does repiration solve?
the problem of aquisition and distribution of O2 and the diposil of CO2
What does the circulatory systme do for respiration?
Provides the commmunication pathway between internal(cellular) and external(body sytem level) repiration
What relationship is used to govern the rate of diffusion b/t two regions
Ficks Law of diffusion
R=DxA(delta p / d)
R:amt of CO2 or O2 diffusing per unit of time
D:diffusion constant
A:SA diffusion takes place
delta p:diff in []=parial P of gas b/t intenal fluid and ex enviroment
d: distance across diffusion takes place(how deep the mine shaft is)
What are some improvements invertabrates use for the movemnt of water over repiratory structures? other?
Many involve beating of cilia, which countinously replace water over the repiratory surface which ultimatly increase delta P.
Bring external enviroment closer to the internal fluid.
Dry air is composed of
____ %?
78.09% nitrogen
20.95% oxygen
0.93% argon
0.03 carbon dioxide
convection currents cause air to have a constant compisition up to 100 kilomoters but the amt decreases w/ altitude(ratio same)
atmospheric pressure
760 mm Hg or 1 ATM or the air pressure as measured by a barometer
partial pressure
atmospheric pressure x fractional composition
Gills
examples:simple popula of echinoderms or complex gills of fish
external gills
-Increase SA for diffision greater then they could have from body surface alone
-not enclosed in a body structure
-must be moved constantly to water from O2 depltion
-damaged easily very thin
-create resistance
Gills of bony fish
operculum
opercular cavity
Gill arches
located b/t buccal(mouth) cavity and opercualr cavity
Respiration (one way)
1) open mouth closed operculum draws water in 2) closed mouth open operculum draws water through gills to the outside

cover of gills
space b/t gills and operculum

there are 4 on each side
each arch has 2 rows of gill filaments and each filament contains plates or lamellae
and blood flows countercurrent
appears to be at a 90 angle to the water - as to |
Ram ventilation
fish that contiuously swim w/ mouth partly open to force water over there gills
What does repiration involve?
diffusion of gas across a plasma membrane.
plasma membrane must be surrounded by water so the external enviroment for gas exchange is always aqueous
ex for terestrial O dissolves in a thin layer of fluid that covers the respiratory sruface
Lung
air enters a branched tubular passage way and become saturated w/ water vapor b/4 it reachs the thin wet mem of the lungs where gas exchange occurs
Uniform pool
two way flow air in and out goes through one path(cul de sac)
What are the four classes of terrestrials?
amphibians, reptiles, mammals, Birds