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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
lymph
the fluid within the lymphatic capillaries and system
lymph nodes
composed of smaller nodules, where lymphocytes and macrophages are present; generally in clusters, especially in the mucous membranes of the respiratory and digestive tracts
spleen
-largest lymphatic organ
-located next to the stomach, under the daiphragm
-red pulp - blood reservoir
-white pulp - nodules housing lymphocytes
thymus
-composed of lymphatic tissue called lobules, has lymphocytes
-decreases in size after puberty
-produces thymosin, a hormone whic stimulates maturation of T cells throughout the body
tonsils
modified encapsulated lymph nodes
edema
swelling in the lymphatic capillaries or other intercellular spaces by interstial fluid
species resistance
each organism is resistant to certain diseases of other organisms
inflammation
localized redness, swelling, heat, and pain of an organ
gastric juices
example of a chemical barrier to pathogens; acid kills pathogens which reach the stomach
lysozyme
inhibits bacteria that could enter through the eye; found in tears, also in sweat and saliva
interferons
powerful chemical released by virus-infected cells

-diffuse neighboring cells & induce them to become more resistantto viral invasion by inhibiting viral replication
-activate phagocytic cells
sebum
oil of skin and hair, lowers pH thereby inhibiting certain bacteria
complement
a group of about 20 serum proteins that carry out effects to kill foreign microbes like:

-coat antigens
-tear holes in the microbe cell membrane directly
-promote inflammation, making the environment less favorable to the pathogen
-attract white blood cells to the site
histamine
released by B-cells in respose to an antigen; they cause allergy symptoms - sneezing, congestion, pain, watery red eyes, mucous, postnasal drip, general malaise
chemokines
released by damaged blood cells, attract white blood cells to site of inflammation
phagosyctosis
.
phagocytes
.
antibody
.
antigen
.
plasma cells
.
clonal selection
.
memory cells
.
accessory cells
.
helper T cells
.
suppressor T cells
.
cytotocis T cells
.
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins
.
primary immune response
first response to an antigen; a slow rise in IgMand then IgG, follwed by a gradual decline

antibodies produced over next few weeks, some B cells become memory cells
secondary immune response
occurs more rapidly upon a second exposure to the same pathogen

involves a more intense, rapid increase in IgG antibodies