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37 Cards in this Set

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vertebra
one of the 33 bones in the spinal column (backbone), individual segments that make up a backbone
agnathan
the earliest fishes that had niether jaws nor paired fins
acanthadian
spiny fish, have strong jaws with jagged, bony edges that serve as teeth, internal skeletons made of cartilage
cartilage
lightweight, strong, flexible, tissue
terrestrial
animals that live on land
thecodont
an extinct group of crocodile-like reptiles
Pangaea
the earth's landmasses were joined in a single supercontinent
ectothermic
animals whose metabolism is too slow to produce enough heat to warm their bodies
endothermic
animals that maintain a high, constant body temperature by producing heat internally
therapsid
an extinct order of animals that were most likely endotherms
gill filament
gills are made up of these, fingerlike projections through which gases enter and leave the blood
gill slit
water is pushed out through here, this opening is located in the rear of the cheek cavity
countercurrent flow
water passes over the gills in one direction as blood flows in the opposite direction through capillaries in the gills
nephron
tubelike units that regulate the body's salt and water balance and remove metabolic wastes from the body
lateral line
a sensory system that extends along each side of a bony fish's body
operculum
a hard plate that covers the gills on either side of the head
swim bladder
a special gas sac that allows fish to regulate their buoyancy
teleost
the most advanced of the rayfinned bony fish
lung
an internal, baglike respiratory organ that allows oxygen and carbon dioxide to be exchanged between the air and the bloodstream
pulmonary vein
carry oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body
septum
a dividing wall that seperate the amphbian's atrium into right and left halves
amniotic egg
contains both a water supply and a food supply to help a developing reptile
oviparous
young hatch from eggs
ovoviviparous
the female retains the eggs within her body until shortly before hatching or the eggs hatch within the female's body
carapace
dorsal part of a turtle's shell
plastron
the ventral side of a turtle's shell
contour feather
cover the bird's body and give adult birds their shape
preen gland
secretes oil
down feather
cover the body of young birds and are found beneath the contour feathers of adults
hair
a filament composed mainly of dead cells filled with the protein keratin
mammory gland
located on the female's chest or abdomen that produce a nutrient-rich energy sourse called milk
weaning
the time when the mother stops feeding her child
placenta
an organ that allows the diffusion of nutrients and oxygen from the mother's blood to the fetus
gestation period
the period of time between fertilization and birth
ungulate
mammals with hooves
cud
partly digested food
alveolus
found inside the lungs of mammals, small, grape-shaped chambers