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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Polymers
A large molecule made up of similar or identical subunits called monomers
Monomers
A small molecule, two or more of which can be combined to form oligomers or polymers
Macromolecules
Polymers with molecular weights exceeding 1,000
Functional Groups
Certain small groups of atoms that are consistently found together in a variety of different biological molecules.
Isomers
Molecules that have the same chemical formula but that atoms are arranged differently
Structural Isomers
Molecules made up of the same kinds and numbers of atoms, in which the atoms are bonded differently
Optical Isomers
Two isomers that are mirror images of each other
Condensation Reactions
A reaction in which two molecules become connected by a covalent bond and a molecule of water is released
Hydrolysis Reactions
A chemical reaction that breaks a bond by inserting the components of water
Proteins
The functions of this include structural support, protection, transport, catalysis, defense, regulation, and movement
Amino Acids
Organic compounds containing both NH2 and COOH groups. Proteins are polymers of amino acids
R Group
The distinguishing group of atoms of a particular amino acid
Disulfide Bridge
The covalent bond between two sulfur atoms linking to molecules or remote parts of the same molecule
Peptide Bond
The bond between amino acids in a protein. Formed between a carboxyl group and amino group with the loss of water molecules
Primary Structure
The precise sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain constitutes this of a protein
Secondary Structure
Consists of regular, repeated spatial patterns in different regions of a polypeptide chain.
Alpha Helix
A right-handed coil that is "threaded" in the same direction as a standard wood screw
Beta Pleated Sheet
Formed from two or more polypeptide chains that are almost completly extended and aligned
Tertiary Structure
The polypeptide chain is bent at specific sites and then folded back and forth, resulting in this
Quaternary Structure
Resultsd from the ways in which these subunitrs bind together and interact
Ligand
Any molecule that binds to a receptor site of another molecule
Denaturation
The loss of a protein's normal three-dimensional structure, and it is always accompanied by a loss of the normal biological function of the protein
Chaperonins
A class of proteins that limit inappropriate protein interactions
Carbohydrates
Molecules containjing barbon atoms flanked by hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups and have two roles:
1) They are a source of energy that can be released in a form usable by body tissues
2) They serve as carbon skeletons that can be rearranged to form new molecules that are essential for biological structures and functions
Monosaccarides
A simple sugar.
Disaccarides
Consist of two monosaccarides linked together by covalent bonds
Oligosaccarides
Made up of several (3-20) monosaccharides
Polysaccarides
Large polymers composed of hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides
Glucose
The most common monosaccaride; the monomer of the polysaccarides starch, glycogen, and cellulose
Hexoses
A six-carbon sugar
Pentose
A five-carbon sugara
Glycosidic Linkages
Bond between carbohydrate molecules through an intervening oxygen atom
Starch
A polysaccaride of glucose with alpha helix-glycosidic linkages, and is comprised of a family of giant molecules of broadly similar structures
Glycogen
A highly branched polysaccharide of glucose that stores glucose in animal livers and muscles
Cellulose
A polysaccaride of glucose, but its individual monosaccharides are connected by beta-pleated sheet-glycosidic linkages, and is the predominant compone of plant cell walls, and is by far the most abundant organic compound on Earth
Lipids
Hydrocarbons that are insoluable in water because of their many nonpolar covalent bonds
Fats
Trigylcerides that are solid at room temperature
Oils
Triglycerides that are liquid at room temperarture
Glycerol
A small molecule with three hydroxyl groups
Fatty Acid
Made up of a long nonpolar hydrocarbon chain and a plar carboxyl group
Triglyceride
Contains three fatty acid molecules and one molecule of glycerol
Ester Linkage
A condensation reaction in which the carboxyl group of a fatty acid reacts with the hydroxly group of an alcohol
Saturated Fatty Acids
All the bonds between the carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain are single bonds
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
The hydrocarbon chain contains one or more double bonds
Phospholipids
Lipids containing a phosphate group; important constituents of cellular membranes
Bilayer
A sheet two molecules thick, with water excluded from the core
Vitamins
Small molecules that are not synthesized by the human body and so must be acquired from the diet
Nucleic Acid
Polymers specialized for the storage, transmission, and use of genetic information
DNA
A macromolecule that encodes hereditary information and passes it from generation to generation
RNA
Through this intermediate, the information encoded in DNA is used to specify the amino acid sequence of proteins
Nucleotides
Nucleic acids are composed of monomers called these, each of which consists of a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base
Base
These of nucleic acids take one of two chemical forms: a pyrimidine or a purine
Pyrimidine
A base that is a single-ring structure
Purine
A base that is a fused-ring structure
Deoxyribose
The pentose sugar in DNA
Ribose
The sugar found in RNA which differs by one oxygen atom
Phosphodiester Linkages
The connection in a nucleic acid strand, formed by linking two nucleotides
Adenine
A nitrogen-containing base found in nucleic acids, ATP, NAD, and other compounds
(A)
Cytosine
A nitrogen-contining base found in DNA and RNA
(C)
Guanine
A nitrogen-containing base found in DNA, RNA, and GTP
(G)
Thymine
A nitrogen-containing base found in DNA
(T)
Complementary Base Pairing
The AT (or AU), TA (or UA), CG, and GC pairing of bases in double-stranded DNA, in transcription, and between tRNA and mRNA
Uracil
A pyrimidine base found in nucleotides of RNA (U)
Double Helix
In DNA, the natural, right-handed coil configuration of two complementary, antiparallel strands
Chemical Evolution
Conditions on primitive Earth led to the emergence of large molecules unique to life
Ribozymes
Can catalyze reactions on their own nucleotides as well as in other cellular substances