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71 Cards in this Set

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weight
measure of the force of gravity on an object
The greater the mass of an object, the greater the force of gravity on it, and the greater its weight.
suspensions
mixture containing non-dissolved particles in a solid, liquid, or gas
neutron
electrically neutral particle
has no charge at all
nucleus
the center of the atom
held together by 2 dif. kinds of subatomic particles
Neuton and proton
volume
the amt. of space matter takes up
physical change
the change of one thing to another, but can go back
Physical properties of matter
physical properties of matter can be observed and measured w/out permanently changing the identity of it
nucleic acids
large ocmplex organic molecules composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorous atoms.
2 basic kinds, rna and dna
store and transmit the genetic info that is responsible for life itself
solvent
substance in which a solute is dissolved to produce a solution
other physical properties
melting point and freezing point
proteins
organic compounds that contain nitrogen in addition to carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
help carry out chemical reactions, help pump small molecules in and out of cells, and are responsible for teh ability of cells to move.
active site
where substrates bind to enzymes
substrates
reactants that are affected by an enzyme
chemical reactions
any process in which chemical change has occured
electron
also a subatomic particle
a negatively charged particle
electrons and protons
normally, the number of negatively charged electrons in an atom is equal to the number of positively charged protons.
therefore the atom is neutral
ionic bond
a bond that involves a transfer of electrons
means charged particle
formed when an ionic bond occurs
the strong attraction between oppositely charged ions hat have been formed by the transfer of electron hold the ions together in an ionic bond
mixture
substance composed of 2 or more elements or compounds that are mixed together but not chemically combined.
mixtures that are made with water can be of 2 imp. types, solutions and suspensions
solute
the substance that is dissolved
solutions
when 1 substance is dissolved in another
oxidation
a reaction in which the atoms in an element lose electrons and the valence of the element if correspondingly increased
polymerization
when large compounds are constructed by joining together smaller compoiunds
reactive element
tending to participate readily in reactions
neutralization reaction
mixing a strong acid and a strong base results in a reaction in which hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions react to form water
ph scale
indicates the relative concetrations of the 2 ions
macromolecules
large polymers.
macro = giant
atom
means unable to cut in greek,
the basic unit of matter
chemical properties
describes a substances ability to change into another new substance as a result of chemical change.
carbon
a unique element because of its remarkable abiliity to form covalent bonds that are strong and stable
carbons can form chains of almost unlimited lengths by bonding to other carbon atoms
inert element
forming few or no chemical compounds
subatomic particles
smaller particles in an atom
the 3 principle ones are protons, neutron, and electrons
what are the four groups of organic compounds found in living things
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
polysaccharides
the form in which living things store excess sugar.
ex. starch
lipids
organic compounds that are waxy or oily. Lipids have 3 major roles in living organisms. storing energy, form biological membranes, and chemical messengers.
peptide bond
the covalent bond that joins two amino acids
carbohydrates
molecules that are sugars and starches
contain 2 hydrogen atoms for each oxygen atom
catalyst
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
monomers
the smaller compounds of polymerization are joined together by chmical bonds to form polymers
matter
anything that has mass and volume.
acids
compounds that release hydrogen ions into solutions
bases
compounds that release hydroxide ions into solutions
the elements that make up practically ll the chemicl compounds in living things
hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
organic compounds
contain carbon
mass
quantity of matter in an object
molecular weight
the sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule
inorganic compounds
do not contain carbon
number of elements
discovered
109 elements
90 types in nature
19 artificially produced
each element is represented by a chemical sybmol
valance
the ability of a substance to interact with another or to produce an effect
dehydration synthesis
reaction in which small molecules join to form a large mol. removing water in the process.
synthesis means putting together
compounds
matter composed of 2 or more elements chemically bonded
chemical compounds
when elements combine to form substances consisting of 2 or more dif. atoms
Isotopes
atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but dif. number of neutrons
radiation
when the nuclei of an atom is unstable and will from tiime to time break down, releasing matter and /or energy
stable/unreactive atoms
when the outermost energy level of an atom is full
chemical bonding
the combining of atoms of elements
avogadro's number
the number of molecules in a mole or a substance, 10 to the power of 23
monosaccharides
simple sugars
(glucose, galactose, fructose)
C6H12O6
reactants
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
atomic number
the number of protoms in the atom's nucleus. identifies the atom. Atoms fo the same substance have the same atomic number. Dif has dif
chemical change
a process in which a substance is permanently altered
products
the elements or compound produced by a chemical reaction
elements
substances which consist of entirely one type of atom
enzymes
enzymes are proteins, an enzyme may accelerate reaction by a factor of 10 to the power of ten
molecule
the result of covalent bonding of dif atoms
smallest particle of a covalently bonded compound
covalent bond
chemical bond formed by the sharing of electrons
water molecule
most important propert is that due to uneven distribution, of electrons, it is slightly charged on each end
hydrolysis
means water splitting
the reverse actin of dehydration synthesis.
mass number
total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
flow of energy
determins whether a reaction will occur
phases
when matter is in different states but still the same substance
proton
prositively charged particle